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of Sri Jayadeva Gosvami 

Other titles by Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja 

The Nectar of Govinda-lila 

Going Beyond Vaikuntha 


Sri Siksastaka 


Sri Prabandhavali 

Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-bindu 

Sri Manah-siksa 


Pinnacle of Devotion 

Sri Upadesamrta 


The Essence of All Advice 

Sri Gaudiya Giti-guccha 

Srimad Bhagavad-gita 

Srimad Bhakti Prajnana Kesava Gosvami - His Life and Teachings 

Five Essential Essays 

Sri Harinama Maha-mantra 

Secret Truths of the Bhagavata 


Sri Vraja-mandala Parikrama 

The Origin of Ratha-yatra 

Sri Brahma-sarhhita 

Sri Bhajana-rahasya 

The Way of Love 

Secrets of the Undiscovered Self 


Sri Navadvlp-dhama 

Rays of the Harmonist (periodical) 

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First printing: 1000 copies, March 2005 
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sri sri guru-gaurangau jayatah 


of Sri Jayadeva Gosvami 

Translation and Balabodhini-prakasa commentary by 
SrT SrTmad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaja 

Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India 


As one worships the Ganges with the water of the Ganges, 

I offer this new English edition of Sri Jayadeva Gosvaml's 

Sri Gita-govinda into the lotus hands of my revered 

and causelessly merciful spiritual master, 

nitya-lild-pravista om visnupada astottara-sata 

Sri Srimad Bhakti PrajnAna Kesava GosvAmi Maharaja, 

by whose inspiration it has been published. 

May he be pleased with this humble offering. 


On Sri Gita-govinda xi 

On Eroticism — Sacred & Profane xiii 


The substance of Sri Gita-govinda xxvii 

A review of the literary principles of Sri Gita-govinda xxix 

Practical realization of Sri Gita-govinda xxx 

Life history of the poet Sri Jayadeva xxxiii 

Commentaries on Sri Gita-govinda xxxv 

Act (S>ne 

The Delighted Captive of Love 1 

Song 1 - pralaya-payodhi-jale 12 

Song 2 - srita-kamald-kuca-mandala 30 

Song 3 - viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante 46 

Song 4 - harir iha mugdha-vadhu-nikare 60 

Act ^WO 

Carefree Krsna 73 

Song 5 - rase harim iha vihita-vildsam 11 

Song 6 - sakhi he kesi-mathanam uddrarh 86 


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Madhu's Slayer Bewildered 101 

Song 7 - hari! hari! hatddaratayd 106 

Jkct (^four 

The Tender Slayer of Madhu 123 

Song 8 - sd virahe tava dind 126 

Song 9 - rddhikd virahe tava kesava 136 

Longing Lotus Eyes 151 

Song 10 - sakhi! sidati tava virahe vanamalt 155 

Song 11 - dhira-samire yamund-tire l6l 

A,ct Q&i% 

The Audacious Autocrat 177 

Song 12 - ndtha hare! sidati rddhd vdsa-grhe 180 

AxX Q&6V6H 

The Dextrous Divinity 191 

Song 13 - ydmi he! kam iha saranam 195 

Song 14 - kdpi madhuripund 204 

Song 15 - ramate yamund-pulina-vane 212 

Song 16 - sakhi! yd ramitd vanamdlind 223 



Act G^ight 

The Hapless Lord of Fortune 235 

Song 17 - hari! hari! ydhi mddhava ydhi kesava 239 

Act &{ine 

The Lost Lord of Liberation 253 

Song 18 - mddhave ma kuru mdnini mdnam aye 257 

Act T^cn 

The Four-armed Flatterer 267 

Song 19 - priye! cdrusile! 270 

Act (Subvert 

The Blissful Cowherd Boy 287 

Song 20 - mugdhef madhu-mathanam anugatam 290 

Song 21 - pravisa rddhe! mddhava-samipam iha 304 
Song 22 - harim eka-rasam ciram abhilasita-vildsam 312 

Act twelve 

Gladsome in Gold 325 

Song 23 - ksanam adhund ndrdyanam anugatam 328 

Song 24 - nijagdda sd yadunandane 344 

Qfierse Q^ndcx 361 



A few words from Prabhupada 
Srlla Bhaktisiddhanta SarasvatT Thakura 


®n Q&ri ^§fUa~$0vinda 

The following discourse was delivered in 1932 on the eve of the 
446th commemoration of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's appearance. 

Sri Jayadeva GosvamI, the court poet of the Sena dynasty, has welcomed the 
appearance of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the auspicious invocation of Sri Gita- 
govinda (1.1). 

"O Radha, all directions are covered by dense and ominous clouds. 
The forest floor has been cast into darkness by the shadows of blackish 
tamala trees. Krsna is naturally timid. He cannot be alone at night, so take 
him home with you." Sri Radha turned her face towards the bower of desire 
trees beside the forest path and, bewildered by intense joy, she honoured 
the words of her friend. When she arrived on the bank of the Yamuna 
river, she initiated her love-play in a secret place. May the sweetness of this 
confidential pastime of the Divine Couple be victorious by manifesting in 
the hearts of the devotees. 

Sri Pujari Gosvami's commentary on the above verse does not disclose the 
picture in its entirety. Here, Sri Jayadeva GosvamI has also revealed Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu to the hearts of highly advanced devotees. The poet hints at 
the appearance of Sri Radha-Krsna in one chamber of the great Yogapltha of 
Srldhama Mayapura; and simultaneously, at the appearance of the combination 
of their bodies as the independent form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 


The path to the spiritual sky had become thoroughly obscured by the dense 
clouds of various dark ideologies. Due to their obfuscation, the pleasant beauty 
of the trees of Vrndavana appeared gloomy to the people of this world. 

When Krsna appeared during the night (towards the end) of Dvapara-yuga, 
he said, mam ekam saranam vraja - "Unconditionally surrender to me," and 
aham hi sarva-yajnanam bhokta ca prabhur eva ca - "I alone am the enjoyer 
and master of all sacrifices." Those of demonic intelligence thought that the 
Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna had spoken out of egoism and pride. 
Thus the darkness and intoxication of atheism became dominant, deviating the 
multitude of souls from the path of spiritual welfare. 

No one will care to listen to his words in the current age if he appears again 
as Sri Krsna, the Supreme Being. Therefore, it is essential for him to appear 
combined in one form with Sri Radha in order to mitigate the contempt of the 
public and overcome his own timidity. Realizing this, Sri Jayadeva GosvamI says, 
grham prapaya, "O Krsna, combine with Radha and proceed to nanda-grha, the 
home of Sri Jagannatha Misra at the great Yogapltha in Srldhama Mayapura." 

Another name of Nanda is Vasudeva. In the Fourth Canto of the Srimad- 
Bhagavatam it is stated, sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam - "The pure 
consciousness in which Krsna is revealed is called vasudeva'.' Although this is 
a consideration from the perspective of Sri Krsna's divine majesty, still Sri Krsna 
only appears in pure consciousness (visuddha-sattvd), even in his human-like 

Let the celebrations on the eve of the appearance of the combined form of 
Sri Radha-Krsna be accomplished by means of sankirtana, the congregational 
chanting of the holy names. Let all other conceptions be reduced to ashes in the 
fire of sankirtana. May the consciousness of all living beings become fuel in the 
fire of love for Krsna, his holy names and his divine abode. 

The Ganges has achieved oneness with the Yamuna river by the influence of 
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's appearance upon her banks. May the secret amorous 
pastimes of Radha and Krsna combined - the sankirtana-rasa - be victorious! 



©// GLroticism - Q&acred &< Profane 

Adapted from SrT Caitanya's Teachings, Chapter XIV 

The sexual principle is a misunderstood symbol of Reality. It can no more be 
banished from our consciousness than consciousness itself. The male and female 
forms are also not the sole and distinctive possessions of this world. There 
is Reality behind them as well. The soul has a body which is symbolized by 
the female form and which is absolutely free from any unwholesome material 

The ascetic's repugnance to the female form prevents an unprejudiced 
examination of the female sex that is a necessary factor of our conception of 
amorous love. This amorous love is the highest subject of human poetry and the 
most powerful factor in all human activities. Its worthlessness is not established 
by refusing to recognize it as a part of our nature. It would be much more to the 
purpose to try to understand what it really is. The Srtmad-Bhdgavatam is the 
only book that answers this all-important question. 

The worship of Sri Radha-Krsna is held by some modern thinkers to be 
dangerous, and even immoral. They apparently take exception to the erotic 
element, which is the prominent aspect of the highest worship of Sri Radha- 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu teaches us that it is obligatory for everyone to pay 
homage to spiritual amour that characterizes the highest service of the Divine 
Person. This is the central topic of Srtmad-Bhdgavatam, which deals with the 
transcendental service of the Personal Absolute. 

Spiritual amour is the highest service to Divinity in his most complete 
manifestation. The real Nature of Divine Personality can never be fully 
understood by those who are unable to appreciate the pre-eminent excellence 
of his service by amorous love. 

The conception of personality that is available to us in this world necessarily 
refers to the gross human physique combined with convention-ridden human 
mentality. These two are the definite contents of the conception. The functions 


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of such personality can have meaning only if they supply the needs of body 
and mind. 

Man is connected with the entities of this world for the satisfaction of the needs 
of his body and mind by five varieties of relationship. These five modes exhaust 
all possible forms of such relationship. A person may stand in the relationship of 
impartiality to other human beings; however, the emotional forms of relationship 
may be said to begin with the relationship of the servant towards his master. 
This is characterized by the sentiment of distant respect for the master. The 
relationship of friendship is closer than that of servitude. Parenthood is still more 
intimate. Consorthood, as of the wife or mistress to her husband or lover, is the 
most intimate and comprehensive form of relationship possible with another 
entity. The chain of relationships is completed by the reciprocal relationships of 
master to servant, friend to friend, child to parents, husband or lover to wife or 

There is no reason not to believe that the five forms of relationship are also 
inseparable concomitants of the personality of the Absolute Being. However, 
they are free from the fetters of the gross physical body and materialistic mind. 

Consorthood, as of the wife or mistress of this world, is not eligible by itself 
to set the tune for other relationships. Mundane consorthood is compelled to 
shrink, at least outwardly, into the strictly private and personal corner of the 
affairs of this world. It is not welcomed for influencing other activities in an 
explicit manner. It can act openly only within the limits of extreme privacy. 

Consorthood is nevertheless recognized as imparting its deepest charm to 
life in a world in which it would not be worth living devoid of this relationship. 
Everyone in this world is however compelled to repress, more or less, the working 
of this admittedly deepest principle of his individual nature, on account of the 
opposition of the uncongenial environment in the shape of the defective organs, 
through which it has to be exercised. But this cannot condemn the principle itself 
that is the ruling force of life. It operates with no less predominance, but with less 
weight of responsibility, by being driven underground by the blind opposition of 
an unsympathetic environment and gross sense organs. 

Should we deliberately deny ourselves the benefit of the guidance of well- 
considered opinion in this most vital and important affair of life? All the great 



religions scrupulously avoid and forbid any examination of this all-important 
subject. The worship of Sri Radha-Krsna is the only exception to this rule. 

The worship of Sri Radha-Krsna has been subject to much easily avoidable 
misunderstanding, bred by sheer ignorance and easily welcomed prejudices. The 
personality of Sri Krsna, the Eternal Divine Lover of Sri Radhika, is the premier 
spiritual male of the Realm of Vraja, which is the Eternal Abode of the Divine 
Pair as depicted in Srtmad-Bhagavatam. This is thought to be an unworthy 
conception of the Absolute Personality, and even as the survival and historical 
myth of a national hero in the times of promiscuous sexuality and primitive 

Hostility to the Divinity of Sri Krsna is entertained on the ground that morality 
should constitute the kernel and pervading principle of religion. We should 
not, however, forget that this advertised morality is at best only a regulative 
and restrictive principle. We are so much wedded to the indispensable nature 
of this moral regulation that it requires no small effort of the imagination to 
admit that moral intervention would be uncalled for and harmful but for the 
actually defective nature of our present environment and sense organs. It would 
be irrational to do away with moral regulation as long as we are compelled to 
remain in our present defective condition. But there must surely be a plane that 
is free from all defects, being the natural and eternal sphere of the activities of 
our unadulterated spiritual nature. The plane of Divinity is superior to that of 
our conditioned souls. There is no need for any form of restrictive morality in 
the spiritual world, where the soul is not subject to the limiting operation of his 
present material and mental adjuncts. 

The moral principle presupposes the existence of a strong and spontaneous 
tendency for evil as being innate to human nature. The good in this world is in 
a state of perpetual conflict with dominating evil. Moral regulation thus becomes 
the indispensable and permanent outward expression of the suppressed good 

On further analysis however, we discover that moral judgement can take its 
stand only on an attenuated form of the evil that it ostensibly seeks to eradicate. 
It does not advocate acceptance of the substantive good. What it chooses to call 
goodness is only relatively and tentatively a lesser evil. The substantive good 


has remained and will ever remain an open issue, if we are content to be finally 
guided by a purely restrictive moral code. The above difficulty and insufficiency 
of the immoral code is most clearly realized in practice by every sincere person. 
It can never be good in itself. Empiric morality, as synthesis, is a counsel of 
expediency for the establishment of a certain radically defective kind of social 
living. Does not the existence of positive regulation obstruct the practice of real 
goodness? The goodness that is producible by the so-called moral regulation is 
not substantively different from wickedness. 

It is necessary to fix our attention on this positive issue. Is the act of 
procreation of offspring good or evil? Is amour to be condemned or acclaimed? 
Can a questionable principle of blind regulation supply the answer to these real 
problems of life? 

Amour is a hard fact of life. It is probably the controlling fact. Why should it 
be capable of doing harm? Or, should it be checked because of the inopportune 
character of our present organs and environment? Can a policy of repression of 
a really good principle be healthy in the long run? Is it not tantamount to refusal 
to think about the proper solution? Would it be honest or helpful, for humouring 
this criminal indolence, to gag those who put forward sound proposals for the 
real solution? 

True, the religions have systematically avoided thinking positively on this 
fundamental issue. They have prescribed only regulations of the present evil 
life engendered by the uncongenial nature of the present environment and the 
defective character of our mind and body. This is not even negative help, if it is 
the only provision. The disease is marked, but no effort is made for its cure. But 
disease cannot be healed by a policy that refuses in principle to contemplate the 
restoration of healthy activity. 

The question thus resolves itself into an enquiry, "How can the fullest natural 
use of this amorous aptitude be secured?" Aesthetics does not provide the 
answer. Aesthetics cannot overlook or heal the really unwholesome side of the 
mundane principle that is the only subject matter of its examination. The ethical 
answer, which is more to the point in one respect, has been considered and 



Medical science, biology and eugenics confine themselves to the bodily 
consequence of the principle of amour and the reaction of these on the mind. 
They also cover much less ground than ethics. 

The positive answer to the whole issue is given only by Srlmad-Bhagavatam. 
This has been accepted and explained by Sri Krsna Caitanya. The answer 
elucidated by the teachings of Sri Krsna Caitanya is prevented from being 
misunderstood by his own illustrative career. 

Any person who has taken the trouble to read the accounts of the career of 
Sri Krsna Caitanya, penned by his associates and their spiritual successors, must 
be struck with the total absence of the erotic element in his career. Sri Krsna 
Caitanya never mixed with women on the footing of sexual intimacy. His conduct 
is disappointing to those who expect to find a rich harvest of erotic activities 
because he was the supreme teacher of the amorous service of Divinity. 

In our present sinful state, sex suggests the idea of sensuous impurity because 
our present self is sensuous. The sense of impurity is really nothing but the 
incongruity of any material, limited, unconscious substance with the nature of 
the human soul. We are not on the same plane with the object of our thoughts, 
but are yoked to it in a most unnatural way. This longing is the feeling of impurity 
or repugnance. So long as we continue to look upon sex with an eye of longing 
we can never think of it in any other way. But this longing is also part of our 
present acquired nature and cannot leave us until we can rid ourselves of this 
secondary nature itself. With this reform of nature our relation to the principle 
of sex also undergoes a complete transformation that is, however, otherwise 
incomprehensible to our present understanding. The female form of the human 
soul and Sri Krsna is not the relation between the material female form and its 
corresponding male form. The amorous Pastimes of Sri Krsna with the spiritual 
milkmaids of Vraja are not the amorous pastimes between male and female 
of this world. The amorous Pastimes of Sri Krsna are not a concoction of the 
dismissed brain of the sensualist. The amours of this world could have no 
existence unless the substantive principle exists in Sri Krsna. But no one denies 
the existence and importance of the principle of amour in the realm of the 
Absolute in its perfectly wholesome form. 


It is because we choose to regard as material the female form of the soul that 
we are shocked at what we suppose to be shameless sensuous proclivities of the 
transcendentalists. This is inevitable so long as we deliberately choose to nurse 
the error that the sex of our experience is the real entity and not its perverted 
reflection and imagine that we have been able to solve the problem of sex by 
transferring our sensuous activity from the body to the mind and by condemning 
as impure the excesses of the external sexual act on no consistent principle. Such 
bungling philosophy has not confined and will never convince anybody of the 
real nature and purpose of the sexual act. This is so because the sexual act is 
the eternal concomitant in this sinful world of the highest function of the spirit, 
which can never be minimized or abolished by all our empiric endeavours. The 
right understanding alone can save us from the terrible consequences of our 
present suicidal sexual follies. 

The Personality of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is identical with and yet distinct 
from Sri Krsna. The Activities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are, therefore, also 
identical with and yet distinct from the Amorous Pastimes of Sri Krsna. The 
Activities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appear in the form capable of being 
received by the conditioned soul without any chance of muddling by his 
conditioned judgment. 

The perfect chant of the Name of Krsna is available to all souls, and it is 
identical with the amorous service of the spiritual milkmaids of Vraja. This is 
the sum and substance of the teachings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Conversely, 
those who do not perform the congregational chant of the name of Krsna in 
the manner that is free from offence are not in a position to realize the nature 
of Divine amour. Those who miss such realization remain subject to the abject 
slavery of mundane lust. 

Sri Radhika is not specifically mentioned in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. But in 
the description of the Circular Amorous Dance, the rasa pastimes, Sri Krsna is 
represented as leaving the circle of the dancing milkmaids in the company of a 
female who is more favoured than all the rest. The milkmaids who were thus 
abruptly abandoned in the very midst of the dance praised the genuine devotion 
of the unnamed female who could induce Sri Krsna to prefer her sole company 
to the combined attractions of all the others. 



But although the Srimad-Bhagavatam mentions the above incident, the 
subject is not further developed in that work. This has been explained by the 
Gosvamls of Vrndavana, the apostles of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, as due to a 
deliberate resolve on the part of Sri Sukadeva, who is the narrator of the Srtmad- 
Bhagavatam, to avoid disclosing to his miscellaneous audience the 'hidden 
matters' of the scriptures. The 'hidden matters' can only be known by the special 
grace of Sri Krsna and not otherwise. They are not to be divulged to all persons 

This explanation offered by the Gosvamls is not opposed to the open 
treatment of the same subject by Sri Jayadeva GosvamI and other writers. In spite 
of the Sri Glta-govinda and its companion works, the subject of the relationship 
of Sri Radhika to Sri Krsna remains shrouded in impenetrable mystery. No 
language can convey to the lay reader anything but a misleading idea of the 
nature of the subject on which Sri Sukadeva maintained such discreet silence. 
This result is hailed with unmistakable joy by Srlla Krsnadasa Kaviraja GosvamI, 
author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. Kaviraja GosvamI pertinently observes that 
no joy can excel that of the narrator of the hidden subject when he realizes that 
unqualified persons are wholly and automatically barred from all knowledge of 
the subject. 

Sri Sukadeva's hesitation to divulge the secrets of the Vedas is well founded. 
The conduct of Sri Jayadeva GosvamI in speaking without reserve is equally in 
order if we remember that his book cannot be understood at all by those who 
are lacking in the highest spiritual culture. 

Certain uncritical writers have even thrown mud at the author of Sri Gita- 
govinda; but they are the exceptions. Generally writers have thought it wise to 
avoid all reference to the subject for the honest enough reason that they have 
failed to understand how a book that has a most obscene exterior could be 
cherished by all the great devotees of the country whose conduct is universally 
admitted to have been freed from any taint of indecency. It is this paradox that 
has always exercised a salutary restraining influence on the saner sections of 
writers with regard to the treatment of this unintelligible subject. 

Sri Radhika is realizable as the Counter-Whole of the Personal Absolute. She 
is the Predominated Moiety of the Absolute Whole. With regard to Sri Radhika, 


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Sri Krsna is the Predominating Moiety. The conception of male and female refers 
to the principle of personality. As both Personalities are fully divine, no grossness 
or inadequacy of the corresponding mundane conception need be imported 
into the subject. But it is imperative to admit the absolute logical validity, 
under the reservation of the inconceivability by our present understanding, of 
the conception of the Divine Pair possessing actual male and female spiritual 

The individual souls serve Sri Krsna as constituents of Sri Radhika. When 
they forget that they are constituents of Sri Radhika they forget the nature of 
their own selves, and engage in the abnormal activities of the mundane plane. 
The relation between one individual soul and another is that of obeying each 
other as constituents of Sri Radhika in the performance of their allotted service 
of Sri Krsna. To use a mundane analogy, all individual souls are spiritual females 
in a subordinate position to Sri Radhika, whose service to Sri Krsna they share 
by their nature as constituents. The object of endeavour of the individual souls 
is to learn to obey Sri Radhika. Only by obeying Sri Radhika can they serve 
Sri Krsna. 

Sri Krsna is the only object of all worship. Sri Krsna alone is the recipient of 
all service. No individual soul can be the recipient of any service on his own 
account or on account of any other individual soul. This points to the true 
significance of the scriptural injunction to abstain from sexual activity and avoid 
the company of all sensual persons in order to qualify for the service of Sri Krsna 
on the spiritual plane. No idea of the positive nature of the function of the higher 
plane corresponding to the sexual activity of this world can be conveyed to those 
who are not completely free from the disease of mundane sexual desire. It is 
for this reason advisable to abstain from all empiric study of the descriptions of 
the amorous activities of divinity until one has actually been freed from every 
worldly passion by the preparatory service of Sri Krsna under the direction of a 
bona fide spiritual master. 



To read a great literary work and understand it in terms of etymology is one type 
of experience, but to appreciate the profound sentiments by which one is truly 
acquainted with the work is a different experience entirely. Comprehension of 
the literal meaning of words is generally a simple affair, whereas assimilation 
of their underlying emotional significance is not so easy. It is impossible for 
one who is not qualified to read a particular text to accept its internal mood 
(Jbhdvdrtha). Therefore all ancient scriptures traditionally begin by defining the 
specific parameters of eligibility for their prospective readers. 

Some deeply realized authors have strictly forbidden unqualified persons to 
study their compositions and have even pronounced curses upon those who 
might dare to delve into subjects beyond their comprehension. What is the need 
for such strict prohibitions? The necessity arises because unqualified persons 
who read esoteric texts inevitably misinterpret them. Thereby, potential benefits 
are replaced by ill effects upon themselves and others. The revered Jayadeva 
Gosvami has clarified the subject of eligibility in his auspicious invocation: 

yadi hari-smarane sarasarh mano 

yadi vildsa-kaldsu kutuhalam 

srnu tadd jayadeva-sarasvatim 

If your heart yearns to delight in remembrance of Sri Hari; if you are hanker- 
ing to contemplate upon him with intense affection; if you are overwhelmed 
with curiosity to know about his skill in amorous pastimes; then by all 
means read this book. You will find my lovely poetry to be extremely relish- 
able. Although it is so emotive and mellifluous, if you are not possessed of 
the aforementioned qualifications then you must not read it. This literature is 
not for you. 


Although Sri Jayadeva clearly addresses the issue of eligibility the unquali- 
fied sector of society fails to understand him and goes on reading this poem 
with enthusiasm for its charming linguistic embellishments. However, impelled 
by their inability to grasp its real significance, they finally resort to insulting the 
crest jewel of poets, Sri Jayadeva, as if his composition were something crude. 
And so they must, for they do not recognize the divinity of Sri Hari. They are 
not even inclined to approach the precincts of sweet contemplation upon him. 
They remain confined to their experience of misidentifying themselves with 
the physical body and considering sensual gratification to be the utmost limit 
of happiness. What can such slaves to lust ever understand about the affairs 
of transcendental love described by Sri Jayadeva GosvamI? The revered Srlla 
Krsnadasa Kaviraja has stated in Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta (Adi-lild 4.164-66): 

kdma, prema — dohdkdra vibhinna laksana 
lauha dra hema yaiche svarupe-vilaksana 

dtmendriya-priti-vdnchd — tare ball 'kdrna' 
krsnendriya-priti-icchd dhare 'prema' ndma 

kdmera tdtparya — nija-sambhoga kevala 
krsna-sukha-tdtparya — prema mahd-bala 

The characteristics of worldly lust and transcendental love are completely 
different. If mundane lust is likened to iron then spiritual love can be 
likened to gold. The desire to give satisfaction to one's own senses is called 
lust. However, the desire to satisfy the senses of Sri Krsna is called pure love 
or prema. The goal of lust is one's own enjoyment, whereas the purpose of 
love is to please Sri Krsna. Such prema is immensely powerful. 

How many people can understand the depth of Srlla Krsnadasa Kaviraja's 
words? Those who are continuously absorbed in gratifying their senses are 
especially disqualified. For them, the supramundane loving pastimes of 
Sri Radha-Krsna are nothing but the play of lusty desires. If they could love 
someone to the point of completely abandoning all social customs, Vedic 
religious injunctions and bodily connections, as Sri Radhika and her friends 
have done, then one day they might also have some idea about the principles 



underlying these pastimes. Only after making such a sacrifice is it possible to 
understand that unselfish prema can be expressed only by those who do not 
cherish even the slightest ambition for their own happiness. 

The Vaisnava poets take up their pens simply for the sake of instructing us 
about the glories of self-effacing, transcendental love. The lion amongst poets, 
Sri Jayadeva, has also taken up his pen to show how the Absolute Reality 
Sri Krsna is controlled by unmotivated prema. He is always ready to fall at the 
feet of any devotee in whom he detects even the fragrance of such affection 
and humbly request, dehi pada-pallavam udaram - "Mercifully bestow upon 
me the soft petals of your lotus feet." (Sri Gita-govinda 10.8). On realizing this, 
Sri Jayadeva GosvamI was greatly perturbed. "How can I make these words 
come from the mouth of Sri Krsna, the supreme controller of unlimited millions 
of universes?" Many times he asked himself, "Should I write such a thing?" 
and many times he decided, "Yes, I should." But even though he wanted to do 
it, he could not bring himself to write this line. He conceived of Sri Krsna as 
the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore the reverential mood checked 
his pen. However, the Supreme Lord is always affectionate to his devotees. 
Assuming the guise of Sri Jayadeva, he completed the line by writing dehi pada- 
pallavam udaram in golden letters with his own hand. Thus Sri Krsna made a 
resounding announcement, as if by the ubiquitous beating of kettledrums, to 
loudly proclaim his love for his devotees. 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the incarnation of Bhagavan who purifies 
the hearts of the living beings in the era of Kali. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta 
(Madhya-lila 2.77) Srlla Krsnadasa Kaviraja writes: 

candidasa, vidyapati, rayera nataka-giti, 

karnamrta, sri-gita-govinda 

svarupa-ramananda-sane, mahaprabhu ratri-dine 

gaya, sune — parama ananda 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu used to retire to the privacy of Sri Gambhlra, 
a small room in KasI Misra Bhavan, with Svarupa Damodara GosvamI 
and Ramananda Raya and there he would relish the transcendental 


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mellows of several literatures such as Ramananda Raya's Sri Jagannatha- 
vallabha-nataka, Bilvamangala Thakura's Sri Krsna-karndmrta, the poetry 
of Candldasa and Vidyapati, and Jayadeva Gosvami's Sri Gita-govinda. 
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu would become overwhelmed with joy as he sang 
and heard them day and night. 

Even amongst these great compositions, the excellence of Jayadeva Gosvami's 
Sri Gita-govinda is unsurpassed. 

Herein lies a profound sentiment worthy of our special attention. Sri Caitanya 
Mahaprabhu descended to this world to teach devotional service by his own 
personal example. Why did he study and taste the transcendental mellows of 
all these literatures in a secluded place with only one or two of his confidential 
associates? The issue of eligibility is relevant even in this extreme case. 
Furthermore, the environment in which to study esoteric scriptures has also 
been revealed. The glorification Srlman Mahaprabhu performed in public 
places amongst the common people of society was only ndma-sankirtana, the 
congregational chanting of the Holy Name. His performance of rasa-sankirtana 
took place in his private dwelling, Sri Gambhlra, exclusively in the company 
of Sri Svarupa Damodara and Raya Ramananda. Similarly, sankirtana was 
also performed behind closed doors at night in the house of Srlvasa Thakura 
in Srldhama Navadvlpa. This is the highest instruction of Sri Gaurangadeva, 
the spiritual master of the entire universe: "If you want to attain the highest 
auspiciousness, first become qualified and then study this literature secretly. 
Then you will be a candidate for prema-bhakti. Otherwise you will commit 
offences to Bhagavan and his devotees and you will fall down." 

Bhagavan Sri Krsna is saktimdn, the supreme potent entity, and Srimati 
Radhika is his supreme potency. As stated by Srlla Krsnadasa Kaviraja: 

sac-cid-ananda purna krsnera svarupa 
eka-i cic-chakti tara dhare Una rupa 

anandamse hladini, sad-amse sandhini 
cid-amse sarhvit — yare jnana kari' mani 

hladinira sdra 'prema', prema-sara 'bhdva' 
bhdvera parama-kasthd — nama 'rnahabhava' 



mahdbhdva-svarupd sri-rddhd-thdkurdni 
sarva-guna-khani krsna-kdntd-siromani 

Sri Krsna's body is the complete manifestation of eternal existence, con- 
sciousness and pleasure. His one spiritual potency manifests in three ways. 
Hlddini is his aspect of bliss; sandhini, of eternal existence; and samvit, 
of cognition, which is also considered to be knowledge. The essence of 
hlddini is prema, unconditional love for Sri Krsna. The essence of prema is 
bhdva, spiritual emotion, and the ultimate development of bhdva is called 
mahdbhdva. Sri Radha is the embodiment of mahdbhdva. She is likened 
to a deep mine of all precious qualities and she is the crest-jewel amongst 
Sri Krsna's beloved gopis. {Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta, Adi-lild 4.61-62, 68-69) 

The pastimes of Radhika and Krsna are the transcendental loving play of 
the Omnipotent Divinity and his potency (saktimdn and sakti). They have the 
power to sanctify the whole world because they are completely free from even 
the slightest trace of lust. One should make a diligent study of these pastimes, as 
such study constitutes one of the limbs of bhakti-yoga. Although many devotees 
are conversant with this conclusion, Sri Glta-govinda remains inaccessible to 
them because they are not sufficiently acquainted with the Sanskrit language 
and its implications. This present edition will provide them with sufficient help 
to understand the meaning of the words and the emotions implied therein. 

Nowadays Sri Gita-govinda is famous in the academic community as a poem 
that exemplifies the amorous mellow, srngdra-rasa. Sri Jayadeva GosvamI is 
also widely accepted as an exceptionally talented poet. However, Sri Gita- 
govinda is not merely a world-famous composition, full of emotive literary 
ornaments arranged according to prosody. And Jayadeva GosvamI is not merely 
a poet adept in tasteful expressions through the development of his innate 
abilities. Sri Gita-govinda is the very essence of all the Vedas and Sri Jayadeva 
GosvamI is the superlative devotional practitioner (sddhaka) and perfected 
spiritualist (siddha), with complete mastery of all Vedic wisdom. The readers of 
Sri Gita-govinda will see that the author has remembered his worshipful deity 
from the very beginning of his auspicious invocation: 


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rddhd-mddhavayor jayanti yamuna-kule rahah-kelayah 

The inscrutable, secret pleasure pastimes of Sri Radha-Madhava on the 
banks of Yamuna reign above all. 

In the second verse he introduces his praiseworthy subject matter: 

etam karoti jayadeva-kavih prabandham 

The poet Jayadeva is writing this narration after taking complete shelter 
of rati-keli, the supremely blissful amorous sports of Sri Vasudeva, 
Syamasundara, the son of the King of Vraja. 

As mentioned previously in the third verse, Sri Jayadeva GosvamI has defined 
the qualifications required to read this poem: 

yadi hari-smarane sarasam mano 

yadi vildsa-kaldsu kutuhalam 

srnu tadd jayadeva-sarasvatim 

If you want your mind to be deeply attached to the constant remembrance 
of Sri Hari, or your heart is already absorbed in contemplation upon him; 
and if you are curious to taste the mellows of his pastimes - that is, you 
hanker exclusively for this and for nothing else - then by all means listen to 
these gentle, appealing and honeyed verses of the transcendental poetry of 

In this supramundane poem, Sri Jayadeva GosvamI has given a charming 
description of the intimate transcendental love of Sri Radha-Madhava. The 
ultimate excellence of the two aspects of srngdm-msa, namely separation 
and meeting, are both found in this lyrical composition. The poet upholds 
the opinion that when the union of lovers is first nourished by feelings of 
separation, it bestows a greater joy upon the perfected spiritualists and the 
devotional practitioners who are expert in relishing the amorous mellow. 



Svayarh Bhagavan Sri Krsna has instructed his intimate devotee, Arjuna, 
about the eligibility and ineligibility to hear and speak Srimad Bhagavad-gitd in 
its eighteenth chapter, verses 67 and 68. 

idam te ndtapaskdya 

ndbhaktdya kaddcana 
na cdsusrusave vdcyam 

na ca mam yo 'bhyasuyati 

Do not speak about this confidential knowledge and realization to those 
unqualified persons who have no faith and who are not engaged in pure 
devotion to me. 

ya idam paramam guhyarii 

mad-bhaktesv abhidhdsyati 
bhaktim mayipardm krtvd 
mdm evaisyaty asamsayah 

One who explains the supreme mystery of my Gltd to the faithful devotees 
is sure to attain pure devotion and in the end he will come to me. 

In these verses, Sri Krsna describes the characteristics of the genuine 
candidates for transcendental realization after first defining the disqualifica- 
tions. Sri Jiva Gosvami has also presented a clear analysis of the qualifications 
for hearing his Gopdla-campu. He has pronounced a curse upon faithless non- 
devotees who still insist upon reading it. Similarly, Sri Sanatana Gosvami has 
strictly forbidden faithless persons to hear or read his Brhad-bhdgavatdmrta. 
Other Gosvamls have also pronounced curses to prohibit the unqualified from 
delving into their literatures. 

^he substance of Q&rf ^Qjlta^ovinda 

Sri Jayadeva Gosvami thoroughly understood the nature of mankind in this 
present age of dissention (Kali-yuga). He knew how easily they become 
bewildered by the sight of superficial beauty. If they do not see an external 


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covering of beauty, they can overlook a potent medicinal herb, thinking it to be 
of no value. 

The poet Sri Jayadeva was moved by the causeless compassion Vaisnavas 
feel towards all fallen souls. Therefore, to make them relish eternal bliss, 
he wrapped the incomparable shelter of his supremely sweet, ecstatic trans- 
cendental emotions in the covering of the worthless sweetness of the mundane 
erotic mood. By so doing, Sri Jayadeva has manifested the exclusive antidote for 
the disease of material existence in the form of this poem. 

The respected readers can now readily understand that Sri Glta-govinda 
is not about mundane sexuality. Rather, it pertains to the very same sublime 
transcendental rasa that has been defined in the Vedas as the cause of lasting 
joy for every living being. Therefore, although Sri Glta-govinda is a poetic 
composition, it is simultaneously the embodiment of the essence of all the 
Vedas. Sri Jayadeva Gosvami is compared to the sacred decorative marking 
(tilakd) upon the forehead of the entire dynasty of poets who are conversant 
with the principles of spiritual mellows. Sometimes he has portrayed Sri Radha 
as a jealous lover, proud of her eminence. Sometimes he has made her weep 
incessantly in the intolerable pain of separation from Sri Krsna, and sometimes 
he has also put Sri Bhagavan into the intense anxiety of separation from her. Yet 
he did not stop there. He has manifested the utmost extremity of love of God 
and the pinnacle of Bhagavan's affection for his devotee by making Sri Krsna 
catch the lotus feet of Sri Radha and beg her, "Kindly accept me as your servant 
and decorate my brow with the soft buds of your lotus feet." This love is the 
essence of all the Vedas. 

The Upanisads proclaim that the indwelling Lord (paramdtma) is only 
attained by whom he desires to be attained. 

nay am dtrnd pravacanena labhyo 

na medhayd na bahund srutena 
yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyas 

tasyaisa dtmd vivrnute tanum svdm 

(Katha Upanisad 1.2.23) 



Bhagavan Sri Krsna is the embodiment of eternal concentrated bliss (dnanda). 
The conditioned living entity, though searching exclusively for this happiness, 
is always unsuccessful. However, his good fortune arises when he witnesses the 
internal emotional ecstasies of the pure devotees. On that day, bliss personified 
begins to search for him. 

Pure devotion (premd) is characterized by its power to attract Sri Krsna. The 
practising devotee may be sitting in his home, but once his heart is infused 
with devotion, blissful Sri Krsna, who is always greedy for the taste of prema, 
becomes anxious for his association. As if an offender, Krsna will approach his 
devotee in a humble mood and meekly supplicate him with the same entreaty, 
"Kindly accept me as your servant and decorate my brow with the soft buds of 
your lotus feet." This is the essential message of all the Vedic scriptures. "Just as 
the Absolute Truth is far away, he is also very near." 

A, review of the literary principles of Qbri ^Qjita^ovinda 

The logical principle of "jewels and gold", known as mani-kdncana-nydya, 
dictates that priceless jewels should be set in pure gold. In accordance with 
this principle, the poet Sri Jayadeva has presented a narrative of Sri Radha- 
Krsna's priceless pastimes in the purest example of literary composition. His 
poetry includes many remarkable features: the sublime artistic sensibilities 
of musical theory (gdndharva-vidyd); all the confidential mysteries related to 
contemplation upon Krsna; and an elaborate exposition of srngdra-rasa in 
both meeting and separation. Furthermore, he has also observed the ancient 
traditional methodology of literary composition. In his own words - sdnanddh 
parisodhayantu sudhiyah sri-gita-govindatah... (Sri Gita-govinda 12.26-27). The 
purport is that the absolute purity of all the aforementioned attributes can only 
be found in the poetry of Gita-govinda. Therefore, it is essential for learned 
persons to make a thorough examination of the text in order to understand the 
validity of this unprecedented claim. Sri Jayadeva GosvamI is convinced that the 
intoxicating effect of wine, the sweetness of sugar, the flavour of ripe mangoes 
and the taste of a beautiful woman's lips, all pale into insignificance in the 


presence of the sweetness of Sri Glta-govinda because this romantic poem is 
saturated with the essence of srngdra-rasa. 

Sri Jayadeva Gosvami has employed varieties of rhythm, rasa and other 
poignant literary devices in this great work. The mellifluous songs of Sri Radha- 
Madhava's amorous pastimes are the predominant subject of his meditation. 
Through the medium of twenty-four songs, the author has clearly revealed the 
immense depth of his study of musical theory (sangita-sastrd) and dramatic 
science (rasa-sdstrd). Every song is composed in a different classical melodic 
mode (ragd) and rhythm (tdld). A careful study of the text leads one to believe 
that the poet must have directly experienced the meeting and separation of 
Sri Radha-Madhava in his trance of meditation. 

Practical realization of Q&rf ^Qjita^ovinda 

It is not by chance that Sri Jayadeva Gosvami has employed a female confidante 
{sakhi) in the role of a mediator to arrange Krsna's meetings with Radha. The 
purport is clear. Unless one is under the personal guidance of such a sakhi 
and until one attains the help of the sakhls, one cannot attain Sri Krsna. All 
devotional scriptures proclaim this conclusion. The help of a sakhi and the 
help of guru are one and the same. To be guru one must take shelter of the 
disposition of the sakhis, and to attain Sri Krsna one must accept the shelter of a 
spiritual master who is perfectly situated in the transcendental mood of a sakhi. 
Herein lies the essential message of the Vedas: 

tasmdd gurum prapadyeta 

jijnasuh sreya uttamam 
sabdepare ca nisnatam 

brahmany upasamasrayam 

(Srlmad-Bhagavatam 11.3.21) 

To know the Absolute Truth, one must take shelter of a perfect guru who is 
fixed in devotion to the Absolute. When Sri Suta Gosvami began to narrate 
Srlmad-Bhagavatam in the sacred forest of Naimisaranya, he called it the 



essence of the Vedas; and the essence of Srtmad-Bhdgavatam itself is the 
rdsa-ltld. Sri Jayadeva Gosvami has the ability to comprehend the essence 
of everything. Therefore he condensed the rdsa-ltld even further, just as one 
might perform the impossible feat of confining the ocean within a jar. He was 
compelled by compassion to manifest the nectar of immortality in the form of 
this poem for the upliftment of all living beings in this age of Kali. In answer to 
the inquiries of Pariksit Maharaja, Sri Sukadeva Gosvami replied: 

anugrahdya bhaktdndm 

mdnusam deharn dsritah 
bhajate tddrsih kridd 

yah srutvd tat-paro bhavet 

(Srtmad-Bhdgavatam 10.33-36) 

Sri Krsna performs the rdsa-ltld to bestow mercy upon his devotees. Yet the 
non-devotees are also naturally fond of romance or srngdra-rasa. Therefore, 
when they hear the rdsa-ltld they also gradually become absorbed in thoughts 
of Sri Krsna. Bhagavan performs apparently erotic pastimes on the surface of 
the earth out of compassion for everyone - the devotees and the non-devotees. 
Maharsi Vedavyasa was moved by compassion to write it down for the benefit 
of all, and the topmost devotee Sri Sukadeva Gosvami was also moved by 
compassion to preach it throughout the world. After that, the best of poets, 
Sri Jayadeva Gosvami, also mercifully reproduced it in the form of an even 
sweeter poetic composition. In answer to the questions raised by Sri Sacl- 
nandana Gaurahari, Sri Raya Ramananda has explained: 

prabhu kahe, — 'sddhya-vastura avadhV ei hay a 
tomdra prasdde ihdjdnilu niscaya 

'sddhya-vastu' 'sddhana' vinu keha ndhipdya 
krpd kari kaha, raya, pdbdra updya 

raya kahe, — yet kahdo, set kahi vdnl 
ki kahiye bhdla-manda, kichui ndjdni 


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tribhuvana-madhye aiche haya kaun dhira 
ye tomdra mdyd-ndte ha-ibeka sthira 

mora mukhe vaktd tumi, tumi hao srotd 
atyanta rahasya, suna, sddhanera kathd 

rddhd-krsnera Hid ei ati gudhatara 
ddsya-vdtsalyddi-bhdve nd haya gocara 

sabe eka sakhi-ganera ihd adhikdra 
sakhi haite haya ei lildra vistdra 

sakhi vind ei lildpusta ndhi haya 
sakhi Hid vistdriyd, sakhi dsvddaya 

sakhi vind ei lildya anyera ndhi gati 
sakhi-bhdve ye tare kare anugati 

rddhd-krsna-kunjasevd-sddhya sei pay a 
sei sddhya pdite dra ndhika updya 

(Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta, Madhya-lild 8.196-205) 

After hearing about the goal of life from the lotus mouth of Sri Raya 
Ramananda, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "This is the last word in regard 
to sddhya-vastu, the object of attainment. By your mercy I have clearly 
understood the whole subject. However, no one can attain this extremely 
profound sddhya-vastu without adopting the appropriate means (sddhand). 
Oh Raya, be merciful to me by kindly explaining the method for attaining 
this goal." 

Raya replied, "I only speak whatever you inspire within my heart. I do 
not know whether what I say is good or bad. Who is so sober that they 
can remain steady in the midst of your dancing energy? You are speaking 
through my mouth and at the same time you are also listening. What a 
mysterious phenomenon. 

"Now I will tell you about this confidential methodology. The kunja-lild 
or rasa-lild of Sri Radha-Krsna is extremely deep. Devotees established in 
the moods of servitude, friendship and parenthood cannot even perceive it. 



None of them have eligibility to enter into this pastime - only the sakhis are 
qualified. This pastime is expanded by the sakhis. Without them it cannot 
be nourished and only they can taste it. Therefore, there is absolutely no 
opportunity to enter kunja-lila without taking complete shelter of the sakhis 
and receiving their help. Only those whose devotional service is to follow 
the transcendental emotions of the sakhis and remain under their shelter 
and guidance can attain the kunja-seva of Sri Radha-Krsna. There is no way 
to attain this objective except for absorption in remembrance of the sakhis 
while taking complete shelter of their lotus feet." 

&ife history of the poet Q&rf ^apadeva 

Sri Jayadeva GosvamI was born in the village of Kindubilva on the northern side 
of the Ajaya river, almost twenty miles south of the Vira-bhumi district of West 
Bengal. The village of Kindubilva is commonly known as Kenduli. His father's 
name was Bhojadeva and his mother's name was Vama-devi. Sri Jayadeva has 
personally revealed the place of his birth in the following verse: 

varnitam jayadeva-kena haver idam pravanena 

He who appeared in the village of Kindubilva, just as the moon appears 
from the ocean, has collected Sri Krsna's expressions of lamentation. That 
Jayadeva is humbly narrating this song. 

The King of Bengal, Maharaja Laksmana Sena, was as learned in morality 
and appreciative of merit as the famous Maharaja Vikramaditya. As the royal 
council of Maharaja Vikramaditya was adorned with the splendour of nine 
jewels in the form of his talented advisors such as Kalldasa and Vararuci, the 
royal assembly of Maharaja Laksmana Sena was adorned with five jewels, 
including Govardhanacarya and Jayadeva. The following verse was engraved 
upon a tablet of stone at the entrance to Maharaja Laksmana Sena's council 


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govardhanas ca sarano jayadeva umdpatih 
kavirdjas ca ratndni samitau laksnasya ca 

Therefore it is evident that Govardhana, Sarana, Jayadeva, Umapati and DhoyI 
Kaviraja were the names of the king's royal advisors. 

vdcah pallavayaty umdpatidharah sandarbha-suddhim girdrii 
jdnite jayadeva eva saranam sldghyo duruha-drute 

srngdrottara-sat-prameya-racanair dcdrya-govardhana- 
spardhi ko pi na visrutah sruti-dharo dhoyi kavi-ksmdpatih 

All the royal scholars' names are included in this verse found in the beginning 
of Sri Glta-govinda. The King held them all in great reverence. He even selected 
Umapatidhara as his prime minister. 

It is difficult to ascertain the exact date of Sri Jayadeva Gosvami's birth. 
According to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's main disciple, Srlla Sanatana GosvamI, 
Jayadeva GosvamI was a contemporary of the Bengali king, Maharaja Laksmana 
Sena. On the basis of authentic texts, it is evident that Sri Laksmana Sena 
was reigning in 1030 Sakabda, corresponding to 1107ad. This date has also 
been verified by Dr. Rajendralal Mitra on the basis of supporting evidence 
gleaned from his extensive research. Therefore it is certain that Sri Jayadeva, 
being a contemporary of Sri Laksmana Sena, was a personality of the twelfth 
century. Cahda Kavi, a member of the royal council of Maharaja Prthvlraja, has 
recounted the glorious histories of the poets of former times in his book entitled 
Cauhdna-rdstra. Sri Jayadeva and Glta-govinda are also mentioned therein. 
Prthvlraja Maharaja was ruling from his capital, Delhi, in the final part of the 
twelfth century. He was killed in a battle with Mohammad Gaurl on the banks 
of the Drsadvati river in 1193ad. Thus it is clear that Glta-govinda had already 
been written prior to the period of Canda Kavi, otherwise he could not have 
mentioned it in Cauhdna-rdstra. 

Many wondrous and divine events from the life of Sri Jayadeva GosvamI 
have been described in Nabhajl Bhatta's text, Bhaktamdla. It is not necessary to 
make this book excessively long by repeating all those details here. The human 
side of Sri Jayadeva Gosvami's pastimes have now become completely covered 



by the passing of many centuries. Nevertheless, every year a huge gathering 
still takes place in Kenduli-gram to commemorate his disappearance from our 
mortal vision. The festival begins on Makara-sankranti in the month of Magna 
(January-February). Fifty to a hundred thousand pilgrims congregate at the 
samddhi mandira of Sri Jayadeva Gosvami to honour him and to hear and recite 
his poetry. 


Commentaries an Q&rf £§fita~$0vinda 

There are six famous commentaries on Sri Gita-govinda: 

Rasa-manjari - by Maha-mahopadhyaya Sankara Misra on the 

inspiration of Sri Salmatha. 
Rasika-priyd - by Kumbha-nrpati Kumbhakarna, the King of 

Mewar. His reign spanned the first quarter of 

the fourteenth century. 
Sanjivant - by Vanamali Bhatta. 

Padadyotanikd - by Narayana Bhatta. 
Dipikd - by Gopala Acarya. 

Balabodhini - by Sri Pujari Gosvami. 

Bowing in deference to Sri Pujari Gosvami's Bdlabodhini-tikd, I humbly present 
Bdlabodhint-prakdsa. Though drawing extensively from the exposition of 
Sri Pujari Gosvami, this new commentary includes additional material from the 
other prominent commentators, along with further elaborations in accordance 
with the precepts of Srlla Rupa Gosvami. 

The original manuscript for the Hindi edition was diligently compiled by 
Srlman Bhaktivedanta Tlrtha Maharaja. Then my daughter [disciple] Sri Madhu 
Khandelavala MA, PhD. refined and embellished the language as if infusing it 
with living force. She also discovered and included the translation of Sri Gita- 
govinda composed in rhyming verse (padydnuvdda) by a resident of Delhi, 
Srlman Vinaya Mohana Saksena. Srlman Bhaktivedanta Madhava Maharaja 
and Srlman Omprakasa VrajavasI M.A., L.L.B., Sahityaratna proofread the text. 


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Srlman Subala-sakha Brahmacarl and Srlman Purandara Brahmacarl helped 
by typing. Srlman Pundarika Brahmacarl and Saubhagyavati Vrnda-devI also 
worked tirelessly in proofreading. 

This edition of Sri Gita-govinda was rendered into the English language by 
Srlman Bhaktivedanta Aranya Maharaja. The manuscript was then edited by 
Srlman Bhaktivedanta Bhaktisara Maharaja and proofread by Srlman Prema- 
vilasa dasa Adhikarl. Srlman Amita-Krsna Brahmacarl proofread the Sanskrit 
manuscript, managed the computer systems and contributed valuable research. 
This transcendental treasure was further decorated by Srlmatl Syamarani dasl's 
original devotional artwork, which was created especially for this edition. 
Srlman Krsna-karunya Brahmacarl rendered dedicated service in the depart- 
ment of design and graphics, and Srlman Premarasa dasa Adhikarl oversaw 
all stages of the production. Readers' appreciation will also be enhanced by 
hearing the complementary recording on CD. Srlman Bhaktivedanta Muni 
Maharaja arranged and sang all the songs after years of carefully researching the 
authentic musical tradition of Sri Gita-govinda. 

I pray to Sri Jayadeva Gosvami, his worshipful Sri Radhika and Vrajendra- 
nandana Syamasundara, "Kindly bestow your causeless mercy upon all those 
who assisted in the production of this book and make them genuinely qualified 
to realize its transcendental significance." 

This edition was produced in a short time, so there are bound to be a few 
minor errors. May the kind-hearted readers accept the essential loving mood 
of the text and be pleased to send me their corrections in writing so that I can 
improve the next edition. 

Fervently begging for a slight trace of the mercy 
of Sri Hari, Sri Guru and the Vaisnavas, 
destitute and worthless, 
Tridandibhiksu Sri Bhaktivedanta Narayana. 

Sri Jayadeva Gosvamfs disappearance day. 
Sri Gaurabda 518 
31st January, 2005 


am visnupdda 

Q&r? Qfbrimad Q&haktiveddnta (^fdrdpdna ^osvdml oMahdrdja 

Author of the BalabodhinT-prakasa commentary on SrT CTta-govinda. 

nitpa-lild pravista om visnupdda 

Q&rf Q&rimad A*. &. Q&haktiveddnta Q&wdml ^rabhupdda 

Founder-Acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness and the first person to 
widely popularize devotion to SrT Radha-Krsna throughout the world. 

nitpa-llld-pravista am visnupdda dcdrpa-kesari 

Q&ti Q&rimad oShakti ^ra/'mm QKesdva (^Qjosvdml QMahdrdJa 

Founder-Acarya of SrT GaudTya Vedanta Samiti. Spiritual master of SrTla Narayana Maharaja 
and sannyasa-guru of SrTla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Maharaja. 

nitpa-lild-pravista am visnupdda astottara-sata 

Q&ri Q&rimad O&haktisiddhtinta QfbarasvaG Tjhdkum y^rabhupdda 

Founder-Acarya of SrT GaudTya Matha. Spiritual master of Bhakti Prajnana Kesava GosvamT 
Maharaja and SrTla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Maharaja. 

"I could not muster the courage to stop her from leaving. Alas! She left in a huff 
because I had disrespected her." (Act 3 verse 3) 

"Alas! My immaculate youth and beauty are all in vain because Hari has not come to 
the forest at the appointed time. I have been cheated by my friends, so to whom may 
I turn for shelter now?" (Act 7, verse 3) 

"O contrary woman, you have wounded me for no reason with your pointless anger. 
Now abandon your reluctance to unite with me." (Act 12, verse 8) 

"My beloved! Offer the fresh buds of your enchanting feet as an 
ornament upon my head, so the devastating effect of Cupid's poison 
may be alleviated." (Act 10, verse 8) 






Act ®ne 


r Che delighted &aptive of^love 

Q^erse J 

7T^Fnsra^ttrf% ^IHHI*^ TF:%^T: II R II 

meghair meduram ambaram vana-bhuvah sydmds tamdla-drumair 
naktam bhtrur ay am Warn eva tad imam rddhe grham prdpaya 

ittham nanda-nidesatas calitayoh praty-adhva-kunja-drumam 
rddhd-mddhavayor jayanti yamund-kule rahah-kelayah 


Radha, all directions are covered by dense and ominous clouds. The 
forest floor has been cast into darkness by the shadows of blackish 
tamdla trees. Krsna is naturally timid. He cannot be alone at night, 
so take him home with you." 

Sri Radha turned her face towards the bower of desire trees beside the forest 
path and, bewildered by intense joy, she honoured the words of her friend. 
When she arrived on the bank of the Kalindl river, she initiated her love-play 
in a secret place. May the sweetness of this confidential pastime of the Divine 
Couple be victorious by manifesting in the hearts of the devotees. 


Sri Jayadeva Gosvami paints a vivid picture of the loving pastimes of Sri Radha 
and Madhava as they meet alone in the forest groves. He has established their 
excellence by describing their pastimes of transcendental sensuality. The poet 
first depicts the scene of Sri Radha-Madhava entering into a bower hidden by 
the dense darkness of tamdla trees. His mangaldcarana (auspicious invocation) 
is the love-play performed by Krsna's most beloved, Sri Radha, after honouring 
the advice of her female friend (sakhi) by leading Krsna to a forest bower. This 
poem establishes the sweetness of Sri Radha-Madhava's pastimes, therefore it is 
auspicious and beneficial for everyone. 

Encouraging Radha, she continues, "Look! Dark clouds holding the fair- 
complexioned moon in a loving embrace are an excitant (uddipand) for Krsna's 
mood. Seeing the example of the clouds, the dark-complexioned Syama is 
anxious to be united with the golden-limbed Radha." 

Sri Radhika's sakhi suggests, "At night the forest floor is covered by the 
sydma-coloured shade of tamdla trees. Impenetrable darkness has spread 
everywhere, so who will be able to see you? Now do not delay for another 

In this opening verse, the great poet indicates that the prominent rasa 
throughout the poem will be srngdra, the monarch of all integrated ecstasies. 
The darkness of night, the cloud-covered sky and the dense foliage of the forest 
floor, beautified by tamdla trees, are all uddipana-vibhdva. Srlmati Radharani 
is dlambana-vibhdva. The sthdyibhdva is rati. The vyabhicdri-bhdvas include 
harsa, dvega and autsukya. The anubhdva is bhirutva, timidity. Sri Radha has 
been described first because the heroine is prominent in srngdra-rasa. 

At this opportune moment in the pastime, Radha's sakhi will listen and look 
around to make sure that the coast is clear. Then she will say, "Go into the 
dense forest for as long as the moonshine is not visible." In Srimad-Bhdgavatam 
(10.30.42) Sri Sukadeva Gosvami has said, tamah pravistam dlaksya - "On 
seeing a dark place..." 

According to literary tradition, there are two types of poetic composition: 
sddhdrana-kdvya and mahd-kdvya, the ordinary poem and the epic master- 
piece. Three components comprise the mangaldcarana verse of a mahd-kdvya: 
blessings (dsirvddd), obeisances (namaskdrd) and a definition of content (vastu- 
nirdesd). In the present verse, the word jayanti is understood in the sense of 
namaskdra, respectful obeisances. This type of interpretation is supported by 
the text of Kdvya-prakdsa. The subject matter, namely Sri Radha-Madhava's 
amorous play, acts in the capacity of both vastu-nirdesa and dsirvdda. Therefore 
this composition conforms to the definition of a mahd-kdvya. 

In Kdvyddarsa, a composition presented in sarga format has been called 
mahd-kdvya. In the present verse, the amorous play of Sri Radha-Madhava is 
the subject matter. Thus the auspicious invocation is technically a definition 

Act ©ne 

of content (vastu-nirdesd) . The dual compound rddhd-mddhava has been 
employed to convey the inseparable nature of their eternal relationship. 

rddhd-krsna aiche sadd eka-i svarupa 
lild-rasa dsvddite dhare dui rupa 

Sri Radha and Krsna are eternally one identity, yet they have assumed two 
forms in order to relish the mellows of loving pastimes. 

This verse of Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta (Adi-lild 4.98) demonstrates the 
unadulterated nature of the relationship between Sri Radha and Krsna. It is also 
stated in the Rk-parisista: rddhayd mddhavo devo mddhavenaiva rddhikd - "The 
handsomeness of Madhava is enhanced by Radha, and the exquisite loveliness 
of Radha is heightened by Madhava." Similarly, Sri Jayadeva Gosvami points to 
the indivisible relationship between the Divine Couple in his opening verse by 
employing the dual compound rddhd-mddhava. 

The first half of the verse is ornamented by samuccaya alankdra and the 
second half by asih alankdra. Consequently there is a combination of two 
distinct figures of speech in one sentence. We also find examples of vaidarbhi 
riti, kaisiki vrtti, sambhdvitd giti, madhya laya and prasdda guna. The hero is 
anukula ndyaka and the heroine is svddhina-bhartrkd ndyikd. The first half 
of the verse is an example of abhildsa-laksana vipralambha-srngdra, amorous 
feelings in separation, characterized by intense hankering. The chanda (poetic 
meter) is sdrdula-vikridita. 


Q&rf (^Qjita-tjavinda 

Q^erse 2 

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etam karoti jayadeva-kavih prabandham 


The heart of the great poet Sri Jayadeva GosvamI is like a mansion, beautifully 
decorated with pictures of the activities of Sri Krsna, the predominating deity of 
speech. He is incessantly immersed in greed to attain the lotus feet of Sri Radha. 
By describing Sri Krsna's amorous pastimes in the forest bowers, he has created 
a tremendous upsurge of the brilliant romantic rasa within those devotees who 
accept only pure sentiments of ecstatic love. 


The heart of Sri Jayadeva is now submerged in a vast flood of bliss after 
attaining a momentary vision of the pastimes of Sri Radha-Madhava, as indi- 
cated by the last line of the previous verse. The compassionate emperor of 
poets, Sri Jayadeva, bestows favour upon all devotees by directly expressing his 
own literary competence in this verse beginning with the phrase vdg-devatd- 

Jayadevah - jaya means "the utmost excellence"; deva means dyotayati, 
prakdsayati or "he illuminates". Sri Jayadeva is one who illuminates the utmost 
excellence of the pastimes of Sri Krsna by his devotion. 

Prabandha - This literary composition (prabandha) entitled Gita-govinda 
attracts the hearts of its audience in the most excellent way (pro). Alternatively, 

Act One 

it awakens Krsna's pastimes in the hearts of the devotees in the most excellent 
way, thereby liberating them from the bondage (Jbandhd) of material existence. 

Why is this poem so attractive? Sri-vasudeva-rati-keli-kathd-sametam. Here 
the word srl refers to Radha. Vasudeva refers to the master and indwelling 
soul of the entire universe, Bhagavan Sri Krsna, who incarnated as the son 
of Vasudeva. He who brilliantly illuminates the Vasu dynasty, the best of the 
Vasus, Sri Nanda Maharaja, is called Vasudeva. Consequently the son of Nanda 
is called Vasudeva Krsna. Sri Jayadeva's composition has the power to attract 
the hearts of all because he has elaborately described rati-keii, the love-play 
of Sri Radha-Krsna. The etymology of this line is sris ca vdsudevas ca sri- 
vdsudevau tayo rati-keli-kathah tdbhih sametam. 

The next question is, "How did this narration come about?" Sri Jayadeva 
replies that Sri Krsna is the presiding deity of the art of speaking. He is the 
orator, ever present within the innermost region of Sri Jayadeva's heart, inspir- 
ing him to write. As the presiding deity of the poet's senses, Sri Krsna infuses 
them with potency. Therefore Sri Jayadeva describes his worshipful deity as 
vdg-devata, the presiding deity of speech, to confirm that Sri Krsna is personally 
composing this poem. 

The pastimes of Sri Radha-Krsna reside together like a collection of paint- 
ings in the mansion of Sri Jayadeva's heart. An artist first has an internal vision. 
After transferring that vision to his canvas, it becomes a painting. Similarly, 
this picture of loving pastimes has been painted by the brush of Sri Jayadeva. 
The marvellous mansion of his heart is decorated with paintings of Sri Radha- 
Madhava's intimate encounters, and its fabulous treasury is his fascinating 
poetry. The poet has renounced all sense of responsibility for the authorship of 
this narration because his speech and mind are absorbed in Madhava. 

Whence came the power to depict such pastimes? In reply Sri Jayadeva 
admits that his sensory powers are all inspired by Radha. And how is she 
present within those powers? Sri Radha is Padmavatl. The etymology of the 
word padmavatl is padmam hare asti yasydh - "She who holds a lotus flower 
in her hand," namely Radha. This reference to Padmavatl implies that the poet 
is predominantly absorbed in the service of Padmavatl Radha through the 

dramatic dancing art of his lyrical expression. PadmavatI is also the name of 
Sri Jayadeva's wife. The great poet praises Radha and simultaneously expresses 
feelings of gratitude towards his wife, Sri PadmavatI, who was highly elevated in 
the loving service of Sri Radha-Madhava. 

The literary device of comparing the heart to a mansion is an example of 
rupaka and anujnd alankdras. The chanda is vasanta-tilakd. We also find 
examples of oja guna, gaudiyd riti, bhdrati vrtti and sambhdvitd giti. 

O^erse 3 

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yadi hari-smarane sarasam mano 

yadi vildsa-kaldsu kutuhalam 

srnu tadd jayadeva-sarasvatim 

Dear audience! If your mind is permeated by mellows of ever- fresh loving 
attachment while hearing the pastimes of Sri Hari, and if you are curious to 
know about his ingenuity in the amorous arts, may you become immersed 
in bliss by listening to the mellifluous, tender and endearing verses of this 
collection of songs by the poet Jayadeva. 


The poet is not afraid or reluctant to admit his eligibility to write this epic poem. 
Dull-witted persons have no faith that this is a genuine account of the divine 
play of Bhagavan. Therefore the qualifications required to study this epic poem 
have been defined in this verse. 

"Dear devotees! If your heart is moved by constantly remembering Sri Krsna 
and you are curious to know about his delightful escapades such as rdsa-lild, 


Act One 

kunja-vildsa 1 , his congress in the forest bowers, his ingenuity in pastimes and 
the sweetness of his cunning behaviour, then by all means hear these honeyed 
words of Sri Jayadeva, the bard of srngdra-rasa." 

Some devotees derive transcendental bliss from remembering Sri Hari in 
a general way, whereas others experience spiritual happiness from a specific 
perusal of his romantic affairs such as the rdsa-ltld. Now what kind of poem is 
this? In response the poet says, "This poem is predominated by srngdra-rasa 
and it is exceptionally sweet. Its meaning is readily comprehensible. Every 
verse is immensely endearing, being imbued with kdnti, Radha-Krsna's attribute 
of beauty enhanced by love. As a lover is dear to her beloved, this charming 
composition is extremely dear to the pure devotees. Love naturally takes 
expression in song, so Sri Gita-govinda has naturally assumed the format of a 
musical. It should be sung in a melodious voice." 

Ancient authorities on rhetoric have concluded that mddhurya guna 
and komalatd, the qualities of sweetness and tenderness, are of two types: 
sabddsrita, related to the individual words, and arthdsrita, related to the 
wonderful emotional impact of those words. Both types are evident in this 

In addition to offering obeisances, blessings and a definition of content, an 
auspicious invocation traditionally includes: 

(1) Sambandha - the relationship between the subject matter and the text. 

(2) Abhidheya - the method of attainment. 

(3) Pray oj ana - the ultimate objective. 

(4) Adhikdra - the qualifications required to appreciate the subject matter. 
Remembrance of the amorous pastimes of Sri Radha-Madhava is abhidheya. 

Sri Radha-Madhava are pratipddya, the expounded subject, and the poem 
is pratipddaka, the expounder. Therefore pratipddya and pratipddaka are 
in smdrya-smdraka sambandha, the relationship of the memorable and the 
memorial. Only devotees who experience ecstatic spiritual emotions when they 
hear and recite the loving pastimes of Sri Radha-Madhava are qualified. 

This third verse features dipaka alankdra, pdncdli riti, kaisiki vrtti and 
drutavilambita chanda. 

1 The word vilasa refers to specific emotional expressions of women such as hava-bhava. 
The activities of passionate love are also called vilasa. 

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vdcah pallavayaty umdpatidharah sandarbha-suddhim girdrh 
jdnite jayadeva eva saranah sldghyo duruha-drute 

srngdrottara-sat-prameya-racanair dcdrya-govardhana- 
spardhi ko pi na visrutah sruti-dharo dhoyi kavi-ksmdpatih 


The rhetoric of an illustrious poet named Umapatidhara is adorned with 
alliteration and other figures of speech. The poet named Sarana has received 
acclaim for his cryptic verses. No one has ever heard of a poet who can convey 
the flavour of worldly romance as skilfully as Govardhana. Kaviraja Dhoyi can 
recite anything after hearing it but once. When even these formidable poets 
could not master every field of talent, how could the poetry of Jayadeva abound 
with all attributes? 


Sri Jayadeva has politely introduced himself as the emperor of bards who glorify 
the lotus feet of PadmavatI Srimati Radharani. Continuing in the same self- 
deprecating mood, he contrasts the deep significance and maturity of his own 
composition with the worthless mundane achievements of other poets. 

There were six famous scholars in the royal assembly of Maharaja Laksmana 

(1) The poet Umapatidhara was the counsellor of King Laksmana Sena. He 
only knew how to develop his message by elaborating on details. Thus 
linguistic and semantic sweetness were absent from his writing. Although his 
compositions flourished into many branches and sub-branches, he could not 
make them acceptable. Since his poetry is not particularly heart-warming, it 
is confined to the category of descriptive writing. 


Act One 

(2) The poet Sarana was renowned for his ability to quickly compose enigmatic 
verses. Although he was popular, his writing contained defects such as 
gudhdrthatva, the employment of expressions that were cryptic to the point 
of being unintelligible. Attributes such as prasdda guna were also absent 
from his works. 

(3) Govardhanacarya was the third pandit in the assembly of Laksmana Sena. 
His power of literary expression was flawless. Srngdra is the ultimate stage 
in the sequential development of rasa. No one could compete with Acarya 
Govardhana in his portrayal of the ordinary hero and heroine who are the 
shelter of that rasa. However, he could not describe the other rasas. 

(4) The poet Srutidhara was famous for his ability to commit any composition to 
memory after hearing it but once. 

(5) DhoyI Kavi was commonly known as Kaviraja, the king of scholars. 
Although he was exceptionally well-versed in literature, he could not 
compose original poetry of his own. 

(6) The sixth poet in the assembly of Laksmana Sena was Sri Jayadeva. The 
perfection of language is achieved only in descriptions of the name, form, 
qualities and pastimes of Bhagavan, as confirmed by Sri Narada, tad vdg- 
visargo janatdgha viplavo (Srimad-Bhdgavatam 1.5.11). This method of 
flawless composition was known only to Sri Jayadeva. 

Therefore he expresses his humility as follows: "Does Jayadeva know 
how to compose flawless poetry? Not at all. Umapati can write meticulously 
detailed descriptions; Sarana Kavi is famous for quickly composing inscrutable 
verses; Acarya Govardhana has no equal; Dhoyi is the king of the literati; and 
Srutidhara has perfect aural retention; but Jayadeva does not know anything." 

According to the author of Rasa-manjari, there were only five poets in 
the assembly of Laksmana Sena. He considers the word srutidharah to be an 
adjective qualifying Dhoyi Kavi, not the title of a specific poet. In this case the 
meaning becomes, "Dhoyi Kavi can recite any poem after hearing it but once." 

The presiding deity of speech, SarasvatI, has proven the aforementioned 
interpretation to be correct. Why is Sri Gtta-govinda superior to all other 
types of poetry? It is naturally salient, emotive, revealing and sweet because it 
describes the pastimes of Sri Krsna. 

The present verse features samuccaya alankdra and sdrdula-vikridita 


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O^erse S 

pralaya-payodhi-jale dhrtavdn asi vedam 
vihita-vahitra-caritram akhedam 

kesava dhrta-mina-sarira jay a jagadisa hare(X) 


O Jagadlsvara! O Hari! From your eternal spiritual abode, you descend to this 
temporary world in the form of a fish and save the Vedas from the ocean of 
universal devastation, just as a ship effortlessly rescues a drowning man. May 
you be victorious. 


The sole purpose of Sri Jayadeva's writing is to reveal the supreme sweetness 
present in the pastimes of Sri Radha-Madhava. The crest-jewel of heroes, 
Sri Krsna, is the original shelter of all existence. All the verses of this song 
describe the avatdras of Sri Krsna beginning with Matsya avatdra. The musical 
mode is mdlava-gauda raga and the rhythm is rupaka tdla. 
Mdlava-gauda raga is characterized thus: 


suka-dyutih kundalavdn pramattah 
sanglta-sdldm pravisan pradose 

mdld-dharo mdlava-rdga-rdjah 


Act One 

Malava, the king of rdgas, enters the music hall in a state of intoxication, 
wearing earrings and a garland of flowers. A shapely heroine is kissing his 
lotus face, and his lustre is as emerald as a parrot. 

The rhythm known as rupaka tdla has been employed here. Rupaka tdla is 
recognized by the combination of virdm and druta at the end. 

There are four titles for Bhagavan in this verse. The first one is Kesava 
for several reasons. (1) The hair that fell from Bhagavan during his Varaha 
incarnation became kusa grass, which is essential for the performance of Vedic 
sacrifices. (2) According to Panini - kesdd vo 'nyatarasydtna - the word kesava is 
derived from the word kesa, meaning "hair" in its widely known sense, suffixed 
by the syllable va. (3) Amongst the twelve vyuha expansions of Bhagavan, 
the kesava-vyuha comes first. (4) The author of Bhagavad-guna-darpana 
states, prasasta-snigdha-nila-kutila-kuntalah - "The name Kesava implies that 
Bhagavan is acclaimed for his soft, black, curling locks of hair." (5) Kesavah: 
ko brahmd isas ca tdvapi vayate prasastiti - "The controller and instructing 
authority of both ka (Brahma) and isa (Mahadeva Siva) is called Kesava." (6) 
Kesdn vayate - "The best of those who relish rasa, Krsna, is called Kesava 
because he decorates the hair of the gopls" (7) The destroyer of the KesI demon 
is called Kesava. 

The second title is Dhrta-mina-sarira - "You who have assumed the form of 
a fish." Bhagavan descends in various forms to deliver the devotees and destroy 
the sinful. Amongst his innumerable incarnations, ten are prominent, begin- 
ning with Matsya avatdra. In this incarnation, Bhagavan killed the demon, 
Hayagrlva, who had stolen the Vedas. 

The third title, Jagadlsa, "Lord of the universe," signifies that he is the 
controller of the entire cosmos and all the activities of nature (prakrti). He 
regulates the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe and he 
governs its every detail from within in the form of antarydmi, the Supersoul. 
The name Jagadlsa is also used to express the compassion of Bhagavan. 

The purport of the fourth title, Hari, is harati bhaktdndm klesam - "Bhagavan 
descends to relieve his devotees from the endless distress of the material world." 
The poet has shown the highest regard for Bhagavan by using these four titles. 

Jay a means, "O master! You are expert in discovering your own eminence. 
May you kindly manifest that superiority." 


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The line jay a jagadisa hare is sung at the end of every verse. Therefore 
it is called dhruva-pada, the refrain, in accordance with the convention - 
dhruvatvdc ca dhruvo jneyah. 

Here the poet recounts the noble activities of Matsya avatara. During 
the universal dissolution, he effortlessly rescued the Vedas, Manu, the Seven 
Sages and all types of seeds, by pulling them through the vast waters in a boat 
attached to his horn. In this incarnation he also protected Satyavrata Muni. 
Therefore, may Bhagavan Kesava be victorious. 

This verse features urdhvamdgadhi riti, upamd and atisayokti alankdras and 
vira-rasa. The sthdyibhdva is called utsdha. Matsya avatara is also recognized 
as the predominating deity of vtbhatsa-rasa (disgust). 



hs - ; 




O^erse 6 

ksitir ati-vipula-tare tisthati tavaprsthe 

kesava dhrta-kacchapa-rupa jaya jagadisa hare (2) 

O Kesi-nisudana! O Jagadisa! O Hari! Assuming your tortoise form, you held the 
earth upon one part of your expansive back. The fame of the impression made 
by the earth on your back is ever-increasing. May you be victorious! 


Act One 


Bhagavan's tortoise incarnation is being described. "Not only did you draw this 
earth (Mandaracala) through the waters of devastation, you also supported it 
upon your back." Bhagavan is present beneath the earth in his tortoise incar- 
nation. The earthly realm is situated like a small toy ball upon his huge back, 
where it has made a permanent impression. 

"This scar is your ornament. May you be victorious." 

Jaya jagadisa hare\ The whole verse is likened to the upper lid of the 
jewelled casket of this refrain. 

QPerse 7 

vasati dasana-sikhare dharani tava lagna 
sasini kalanka-kaleva nimagna 

kesava dhrta-sukara-rupa jaya jagadisa hare (3) 

O Jagadisa! O Kesava! O Hari! O you who have assumed the form of a boar! 
As the moon appears to contain a blemish, similarly, the earth is situated upon 
your tusks. May you be victorious! 


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Not only does Bhagavan support the earth and all moving and stationary living 
beings, he also runs with the earth planet on his tusks. At the beginning of the 
creation, Hiranyaksa stole Bija-bhuta Prthvi, the earth goddess, and went down 
to the Rasatala planetary system. At that time Bhagavan assumed the form of 
a boar, entered into the waters of devastation and rescued Prthvi by lifting her 
up on the tip of his tusks. He placed her on the surface of the water, where 
she floated on the strength of his yogic power called satya-sankalpa. When 
Bhagavan was carrying the earth upon his radiant tusks, she appeared to be as 
beautiful as the dark marks on the moon. The poet has compared Bhagavan's 
tusks with the new moon to illustrate the vast size of his tusks in comparison 
to the earth. The earth is as inconspicuous as marks on the moon. The word 
nimagna points to Varahadeva's identity as the presiding deity of bhaydnaka- 
rasa (terror). This verse contains upama alankdra. 

"O you who appear in the form of a boar, may you be victorious!" 

Q^erse 8 

tava kara-kamala-vare nakham adbhuta-srngam 

kesava dhrta-narahari-rupa jaya jagadisa hare (4) 


Act ©ne 

O Jagadlsvara! O Hari! O Kesava! You have assumed the form of Nrsirhha, 
part man and part lion. With the wonderful, sharp nails of your excellent lotus 
hands, you tear apart the body of Hiranyakasipu, just as a bumblebee tears a 
flower. May you be victorious! 


Now Sri Jayadeva praises Bhagavan in his Nrsirhha avatdra. Bhagavan Sri Krsna 
is distressed by the sorrow of others. He can accept any difficulty for himself, 
but he cannot tolerate the suffering of others. Hiranyakasipu, the son of Diti, 
committed atrocities against his own son, the great devotee Prahlada Maharaja. 
So Bhagavan protected Prahlada by tearing apart the chest of that powerful 
demon with his nails. 

"O Kesava! You have assumed a form which is part man and part lion. One 
is struck with wonder because the sharp nails of your excellent lotus hands 
appear to be the pinnacles of a mountain range. They also resemble the tips 
of the best lotus petals. Bumblebees tear apart the tips of other lotus flowers, 
but the tips of your lotus hands have torn apart the bee-like body of the demon 
Hiranyakasipu." This is an example of virodhdbhdsa alankdra, the reverse 
analogy. Rupaka alankdra has also been employed by comparing the demon 
with a bumblebee to convey his blackness. In the Visvakosa Sanskrit dictionary 
the word srnga can refer to a musical horn, excellence and the extreme tip. 
Sri Nrsirhha is considered to be the presiding deity of vdtsalya-rasa (parental 


Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavindc 


Q^erse 9 

chalayasi vikramane balim adbhuta-vdmana 

kesava dhrta-vdmana-rupa jay a jagadtsa hare (5) 


O master of the entire universe! O Sri Hari! O Kesava! Assuming the form of a 
dwarf, you cheat King Bali on the pretext of begging for three paces of land. 
The population of the universe has become purified by the water that touched 
your toenails (the Ganges). O wonderful Vamanadeva, may you be victorious! 


"You went to the sacrificial arena of Bali on the pretext of begging alms. After 
requesting the donation of three steps of land, you assumed your gigantic 
Trivikrama form and spanned the upper and lower planetary systems." 

The verb chalayasi is in the present tense to imply, 'After mercifully 
bestowing a benediction upon Bali, you now reside with him in Patala." 
Alternatively, "You have been repeatedly cheating him in the form of a dwarf 
since time without beginning." 

The phrase pada-nakha-nira-janita-jana-pdvana says that Bhagavan has 
purified the whole material world by manifesting the Ganges from his toenails. 


Act ©ne 

As Bhagavan spanned the earth, Brahma saw his lotus feet in Brahmaloka and 
offered arghya, the water offered in the formal reception of a dignitary. That 
very water became the Ganges. Therefore, "O Kesava, may you be victorious!" 

This verse is an example of the secondary mellow of wonderment (adbhuta- 
rasd). Here Bhagavan appears as Vamanadeva, the presiding deity of sakhya- 
rasa (friendship). 

Q^erse JO 

ksatriya-rudhira-maye jagad-apagata-pdpam 
snapayasi payasi samita-bhava-tdpam 

kesava dhrta-bhrgupati-rupa jaya jagadisa hare (6) 

O Jagadisa! O Hari! O Kesi-nisudana! You have assumed the form of Bhrgupati 
(Parasurama). You have dispelled the anguish of the material world by 
destroying the dynasty of the reigning military caste and purifying the universe 
with the water of their blood. O you who have appeared as Bhrgupati, may you 
be victorious! 


The Parasurama incarnation is being glorified. "O Hari, assuming the form of 
Bhrgupati, you destroyed the warrior caste who had become inimical to the 


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brdhmanas; not only once, but twenty-one times. You have made the lake 
of their blood a place of pilgrimage at Kuruksetra. By bathing there, all the 
living entities of the universe are delivered from the reactions of their sins and 
they attain liberation from the suffering of material existence. When spiritual 
knowledge awakens, suffering is relieved and one is pacified." 

This verse features svabhavikokti alankdra and adbhuta-rasa. The 
Parasurama avatdra is considered to be the presiding deity of raudra-rasa 
(anger). The hero of the first six verses of this song is dhiroddhata ndyaka. 

O^erse J J 

vitarasi diksu rane dik-pati-kamantyam 
dasa-mukha-mauli-balim ramanlyam 

kesava dhrta-raghupati-rupa jay a jagadtsa hare (7) 


O master of the universe, Sri Hari! O killer of the Kesi demon! Assuming the 
form of Sri Rama, you engage in battle with the ten-headed demon king, 
Ravana, and distribute his extremely attractive and coveted crowned heads as 
sacrificial offerings to the presiding demigods of the directions such as Indra. 
May you be victorious! 


Act One 


The character of Sri Rama is being described in the seventh verse of this song. 
"My Lord, you have appeared as the tilaka of the Raghu dynasty, Sri Rama, to 
tolerate sufferings such as separation from your beloved." 

Sri Bhagavan fought with Ravana, who had caused the whole world to weep. 
In that terrific battle, Bhagavan cut off Ravana's ten heads and offered them as 
oblations to the presiding deities of the ten directions. In this way he brought 
peace to a world that had been overwhelmed with catastrophes created by the 
evil rdksasa dynasty. 

The sacrificial offering of Ravana's heads was coveted by the presiding 
deities of the directions. This oblation signalled the death of Ravana and thus 
gave great pleasure to all the people of the world. Sri Jayadeva has expressed 
this with the words " dikpati-kamaniyam" and "ramaniyam" . There are ten 
dikpdlas, presiding deities of the ten directions, and the crowned heads of 
Ravana were also ten in number. Therefore this offering was kamaniya, 
immensely pleasing to the dikpdlas, who each received one crowned head. 

Bhagavan has increased the bliss of the entire population of the world by 
killing Ravana because Ravana was habituated to inflicting pain upon others. 

In this verse the hero is dhlroddtta ndyaka. Bhagavan's Rama avatdra is the 
presiding deity of karuna-rasa (compassion). 

The etymology of the phrase dasa-mukha-mauli-balim is, dasa-mukhasya 
ye maulaya tdnyeva balim - "The crowned heads of Ravana are the offering." 
Although the word mauli means both "head" and "crown", the accepted 
meaning is "crowned head" in accordance with the impartial interpretation 


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O^erse J 2 

vahasi vapusi visade vasanam jaladdbham 

kesava dhrta-haladhara-rupa jay a jagadtsa hare (8) 


O Jagat-svami! O killer of the demon Kesi! O Hari! You have assumed a brilliant 
white complexion in your form as Baladeva Prabhu. You wear blue clothes that 
resemble the beauty of newly formed, fresh rainclouds. It seems that the River 
Yamuna has hidden in your cloth, fearing the blow of your plough. O carrier of 
the plough, may you be victorious! 


Bhagavan's form as the carrier of the plough, Sri Balarama, is being glorified 
in the eighth verse of this song. The words vapusi visade indicate that the fair 
complexion of Sri Balarama is radiantly white. The word jaladdbha indicates 
that Balarama Prabhu wears blue-green-coloured clothes. Dark blue clouds 
that are dense with water are called jalada. The word jaladdbha is derived thus 
jaladasya dbhd sydmd yasya tarn. As a fresh raincloud is a source of joy for a 
farmer, Sri Balarama's cloth bestows bliss upon the devotees. 

The etymology of the phrase hala-hati-bhiti-milita-yamundbham is halena 
yd hatih tad bhityd militd yd yamund tasyd dbhd iva dbhd yasya tat. It is not 


Act One 

that Bhagavan only finds the distress of separation from his beloved to be 
intolerable, as he did in the Sri Rama incarnation. Here the poet says, "You have 
forcibly dragged your dear devotee, Yamuna, just to relieve the minor distress of 
your beloveds' fatigue. The blue clothes upon your radiant white limbs give the 
impression that Yamuna has entered your charming blue cloth, fearing the blow 
of your plough." 

The hero of this verse, Sri Balarama, is depicted as dhira-lalita ndyaka. He is 
considered to be the presiding deity of hasya-rasa (divine comedy). 

Q^erse 13 

nindasi yajna-vidher ahaha sruti-jdtam 
sadaya-hrdaya darsita-pasu-ghdtam 

kesava dhrta-buddha-sarira jay a jagadtsa hare (9) 


O Jagadlsvara! O Hari! O Kesi-nisudana! You have assumed the form of Buddha. 
Being compassionate and sensitive, you decry the Vedas when you see the 
violence inflicted upon animals in the course of sacrificial performances. May 
you be victorious! 


Now Bhagavan's Buddha avatdra is being eulogized. The Vedas are the 
embodiment of the breath of Bhagavan, tasya nihsvasitah veddh. They are also 


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considered to be his personal orders. When conceptions opposed to the Vedas 
began to flourish in the name of Vedic sacrifice, Bhagavan descended in the 
form of Buddha. 

One might ask, "If you have personally made the regulations of sacrifice, 
then why did you speak out against them? It is surprising that you are the 
original propagator of the Vedas and now you are rebuking them." 

In response it is stated here sadaya-hrdaya darsita-pasu-ghdtam - "Because 
you are kind to animals, you have bewildered the demons by instructing them 
that non-violence is the highest religion (ahirhsd paramo dharmaK). In the form 
of Mohini-murti you bewildered the demons and saved the ambrosia. Similarly, 
to bewilder the demons and save the animals, in the form of Buddha you later 
taught that sacrifices were improper." 

Bhagavan's heart was moved with compassion on seeing the violence 
committed against sacrificial animals. In this avatdra, he was impelled by pity 
to decry the Vedic scriptures advocating sacrifice. 

In this verse the hero is dhira-sdnta ndyaka. Bhagavan Buddha is considered 
to be the presiding deity of sdnta-rasa (tranquillity). 

O^erse 1% 

mleccha-nivaha-nidhane kalayasi karavdlam 
dhumaketum iva kim api kardlam 

kesava dhrta-kalki-sarira jay a jagadisa hare (10) 


Act One 

O Sri Hari, controller of the universe! O Killer of Kesi! Assuming the form of 
Kalki, you wield a fearsome sword that resembles a foreboding star as you 
slaughter the barbarians. May you be victorious! 


Now the poet recounts the glories of Bhagavan's Kalki avatdra. "Without making 
war at the end of Kali-yuga, the savage population will not be destroyed. And 
without such destruction, peace will not be established. Therefore you assume 
the form of Kalki and exterminate the barbarians. You wield a terrifying sword 
that appears to be death personified as you annihilate the degraded humans." 

The poet has used the words kim api to emphasize that this sword is the 
embodiment of terror. 

Dhumaketum iva - Dhumaketu is the name of a particular dreaded star that 
signifies impending disaster. Bhagavan's sword is the Dhumaketu that spells 
imminent danger for the barbaric humans. The word dhumaketu also means 
"fire", indicating that his sword is undesirable for the uncivilized society. 

The hero of the current verse is dhiroddhata ndyaka. Kalki Bhagavan is 
considered to be the presiding deity of vlra-rasa (chivalry). 

Q^erse IS 

srl-jayadeva-kaver idam uditam uddram 
srnu sukha-dam subha-dam bhava-sdram 

kesava dhrta-dasa-vidha-rupa jay a jagadisa hare (11) 

O Jagadlsvara! O Sri Hari! O Kesi-nisudana! O you who appear in ten different 
forms! May you be pleased to hear this magnanimous prayer of glorification 
by Sri Jayadeva, which bestows both happiness and auspiciousness. It is the 
extracted essence of all material existence. 



After singing, "Victory to the ten individual avataras who are the presiding 
deities of the various rasas" now the great poet Jayadeva makes his humble 
request to the undisputed hero of all rasas. "O you who are the embodiment of 
all ten forms, may you be victorious!" 

Sukha-dam - This poetic eulogy bestows transcendental happiness as soon as 
one hears it because it immediately removes one's absorption in anything else. 

Subha-dam - This prayer bestows auspiciousness upon the world because 
it reveals the mysteries of your appearance pastimes, and it destroys all impedi- 
ments obscuring the attainment of Paramatma. 

Bhava-sdram - This phrase is an example of a compound in which the 
middle term has been elided (madhya-pada lopt samdsa). The full phrase 
is bhava-cchedaka hetu madhye sdram - "This prayer is the essence of all 
processes for crossing over the ocean of material existence." 

Jaya - Use of the present tense indicates that all Bhagavan's incarnations 
are eternal and their pastimes are also eternal. The poet has also testified that 
Sri Krsna is the original cause of all incarnations. All avataras have manifested 
from him. He is the ultimate reality appearing in different forms. Therefore, 
"O complete origin of all avataras, you endlessly revel in your pastimes. You 
attract the hearts of everyone and bestow sublime transcendental happiness 
upon them. May you be eternally victorious! Your devotee, Sri Jayadeva, is 
offering this prayer unto you." 

In this verse we find sdnta-rasa and parydyokta alankdra. 

O^erse 16 


Act One 

veddn uddharate jaganti vahate bhu-golam udbibhrate 
daityam ddrayate balirh chalayate ksatra-ksayarh kurvate 

paulastyam jayate halarh kalayate kdrunyam dtanvate 

mlecchdn murcchayate dasdkrti-krte krsndya tubhyam namah 


Unto the deliverer of the Vedas, the upholder of the world of moving and 
stationary living beings, the saviour of Mother Earth, the slayer of Hiranya- 
kasipu, the deceiver of Bali, the destroyer of the ksatriyas, the conqueror of 
Paulastya (Ravana), the wielder of the plough called Ayudha, the advocate of 
compassion and the slayer of the barbarians; unto you who assume these ten 
spiritual forms, O Sri Krsna! I offer my obeisances unto you. 


In the ten verses of the first song of Act One of Sri Gita-govinda, Sri Jayadeva 
has depicted the charming pastimes of the avatdras of Bhagavan Sri Krsna. 
Sri Krsna manifests himself in the form of these ten avatdras. He has delivered 
the Vedas in the form of Matsya, he upheld the world in the form of Kurma, he 
saved Mother Earth in the form of Varaha, he killed Hiranyakasipu in the form 
of Nrsirhha, he cheated Bali and made him his own in the form of Vamana, he 
annihilated the wicked ksatriyas in the form of Parasurama, he chastised the 
miscreants in the form of Balabhadra, he advocated compassion in the form of 
Buddha and he slew the barbarians in the form of Kalki. 

"O Bhagavan Sri Krsna! O you who assume these ten incarnations, obeisan- 
ces unto you." 

The first song, entitled Dasdvatdra-stotra, is composed in the chanda called 
kirti-dhavala. Appropriate ragas include pdrasvara and madhyama in ddi tdla. 
We also find vilambita laya, mddhyami riti and srngdra-rasa. 






Qbona 2 

The musical mode is gurjari raga and the rhythm is 
nihsdra tdla. 

lurjari raga: The personification of this raga resembles 
the sydmd heroine. Her body is warm in the cold season 
and cool in the hot season. Her breasts are extremely firm 
and her hair is captivating. Simply by the touch of her 
feet, the asoka tree blossoms out of season. She arrives 
at a bed that is decorated with soft buds of the best 
sandalwood trees. Being from the south, she assumes 
semitones between the scale degrees. 


The rhythm is nihsara tala with two druta beats and two 
laghu beats. 


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*T£IH<H«cbkH|$H M^l+H TT | 
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O^erse 17 

srita-kamala-kuca-mandala dhrta-kundala e 
kalita-lalita-vanamdla jay a jay a deva hare(l) 


O Deva! O Hari! O you who take shelter of the round breasts of Sri Radha! 
(O you who revel in pastimes with the full bosom of Kamala!) O you whose 
ears are decorated with earrings and who wear an enchanting garland of forest 
flowers! O Hari, may you be triumphant! 


In the first song, Krsna was described as the subject of everyone's worship. 
Now Sri Jayadeva glorifies him as the exclusive subject of contemplation and 
meditation. These prayers reveal both Krsna's highest excellence as the crest- 
jewel of all heroes and his various moods as the chivalrous (dhiroddtta), the 
arrogant idhiroddhatd) , the sober (dhira-sdntd) and the romantic idhira-lalitd) 

Srita-kamald-kuca-mandala e - the etymology of this phrase is srita- 
kamaldydh kuca-mandalam yend 'sau tatsamvuksai srita-kamald-kuca- 
mandala, "Sri Krsna is the servant of the round breasts of Radha." He is the 
beloved of LaksmI, his dearmost goddess of fortune. This line infers Krsna 
revels in amorous games; he is carefree, cunning in the arts of love and expert 
in joking. 

Dhrta-kundala e (jdhrte kundala yena sa tathd tasya sambuddhih) - "He 
who has put on earrings." The beauty of his lotus face is further enhanced by 
those makara-shaped earrings. 2 Kalita-lalita-vanamdla - "You have put on an 
exceedingly attractive garland of forest flowers." The author of the Visvakosa 
dictionary states: 

' The makara is a shark-like creature depicted on the flag of Cupid. 


Act One 

dpdda-lambini mala 

vanamdleti tarn viduh 
patra-puspa-mayi mala 

vanamdld praklrtitd 

A garland that hangs all the way down to one's feet is called vanamdld. Such 
a garland is made from leaves and flowers. 

Thus Krsna's fresh youthfulness has been proclaimed by these three 
adjectival phrases. His style of dressing has also been revealed - gopa-vesa 
venu-kara, nava-kisora nata-vara. "Decorated like a dancer upon the stage, 
the cowherd boy Krsna is a fresh youth with a flute in his hand." (Sri Caitanya- 
caritdmrta, Madhya-lild 21.101) 

Hare - O Sri Krsna, you attract the heart, mind and prana (life-air) of 
everyone by displaying the splendour of your marvellous pastimes amongst 

The verses are connected by the refrain jay a jay a deva hare. 

Sri Krsna is portrayed as dhira-lalita ndyaka. This hero is characterized by 
his skill in eros, his fresh youthfulness, his expertise in humour, the absence of 
anxiety, and submission to his beloveds. 

The letter V is an embellishment (dldpa) appropriately placed to complete 
the rdga. 

Ctferse J 8 

dina-mani-mandala-mandana bhava-khandana e 
muni-jana-mdnasa-harhsa jaya jay a deva hare (2) 

O Deva! O Hari! You are the ornament of the sun globe. You sever the bondage 
of material existence. You are the swan who sports in the Manasa-sarovara Lake 
of the sages' hearts. May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


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Dina-mani-mandala-mandana - "As the sun is worshipful for everyone, you 
are worthy of contemplation and worship." 

The Vedas enjoin, dheyah sadd savitr-mandala-madhya-varti, ndrdyanah 
sarasijdsana sannivistah - "Sri Bhagavan resides within the sun planet in the 
form of the Indwelling Witness (antarydmt). This is to be remembered during 

And, jyotir-abhyantare sydmasundaram atulam - "The incomparable 
Syamasundara resides within the light." 

Bhava-khandana e - The qualities of the soul have been described in 
Chdndogya Upanisad (8.7.1): 

esa dtmdpahata-pdpmd vijaro vimrtyur visoko 
vijighatso 'pipdsah satya-kdmah satya-sankalpah 

By nature the soul is free from the bondage of actions; free from old age, 
death, lamentation, bewilderment, hunger and thirst. He has no sensual 
desires and all his spiritual desires become realized. 

These qualities are concealed as long as one is fallen in material existence, 
yet they manifest when Bhagavan bestows his mercy. Therefore Bhagavan 
Sri Krsna has been addressed as bhava-khandana - "He who demolishes one's 
entanglement in material existence." 

Muni-jana-mdnasa-hamsa (muni-jandndm mdnasdni iva mdnasdni tesu 
hariisa iva harhsd) - "As the king of swans sports upon Lake Manasa, you enact 
your pastimes upon the minds of the thoughtful sages. An internal vision of 
your loving play is continuously revealed to them." 

The poised visionaries are tolerant in the face of adversity and decorated 
with all meritorious qualities such as humility. Thus they are fully engaged 
in the supramundane service of Krsna (bhajand). By his mercy they become 
completely detached from material existence. 

Deva - Bhagavan is called Deva because he is replete with divine attributes 

Jay a - This verb reveals the poet's immense honour for Sri Krsna. 

The hero of this verse is the sober dhira-sdnta ndyaka. 


Act (Sine 

kaliya-visa-dhara-ganjana jana-ranjana e 
yadu-kula-nalina-dinesa jaya jaya deva hare (3) 

O Deva! O Hari! You pulverize the pride of the venomous snake, Kaliya. You 
fill the hearts of your dearest ones with endless joy. You are the sun that makes 
the lotus of the Yadu dynasty bloom. May you be triumphant! May you be 


After praying to Krsna as the subject of his worship, the poet now glorifies 
Krsna as the subject of his meditation. Here Sri Krsna is portrayed as the 
arrogant hero, dhiroddhata ndyaka. 

Kaliya-visa-dhara-ganjana - Bhagavan Sri Krsna crushed the pride of the 
hundred-headed venomous serpent, Kaliya, who lived in the River Yamuna at 
Kaliya-daha in Vrndavana. 

Jana-ranjana e - By subduing Kaliya, Bhagavan gave pleasure to the folk of 
Vraja. Krsna knows very well that they do not desire anything but his welfare. 
Moreover he thinks, "They cannot even stay alive without me." Their protection 
and their satisfaction also become Krsna's responsibility. "O you who bring 
delight to your devotees, may you be triumphant!" 

Yadu-kula-nalina-dinesa - As a lotus blossoms when the sun rises, the Yadu 
dynasty flourishes when Bhagavan descends amongst them. The cowherd folk 
of Vraja are also Yadavas. Therefore Krsna is the only light of Gokula. 

This verse describes Bhagavan as a powerful individual who enlivens his 
devotees and who belongs to a noble family. 

"O Deva, kindly crush the vanity of envious egotists such as ourselves, 
thereby making us deeply happy." 

The arrogant hero, dhiroddhata ndyaka, is malicious, proud, treacherous, 
angry, fickle and boastful. 


O^erse 20 

madhu-mura-naraka-vindsana garuddsana e 
sura-kula-keli-niddna jaya jaya deva hare (4) 


O Deva! O Hari! O destroyer of the demons Madhu, Mura and Naraka! O you 
who ride upon your transcendent eagle Garuda! You inspire the demigods' 
delightful play. May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


Madhu-mura-naraka-vindsana - Bhagavan destroys the demons Madhu and 
Naraka during his residence in Dvaraka. The reference to Mura alludes to his 
mystical powers of deception. 

Sri Krsna exhibits ninety-six heroic traits while performing his eternal 
pleasure pastimes in three spiritual realms: Gokula, Mathura and Dvaraka. His 
role as the arrogant hero (dhtroddhatd) is indicated here. 

Garuddsana e (garuda dsanam yasya tat-sambuddhau) - Bhagavan is 
Garudasana, one who accepts the king of birds, Garuda, as his throne. 

Sura-kula-keli-niddna - He increases the happiness of the demigods by 
annihilating the demons and he personally engages in blissful amusements 
along with his pure devotees. 

"O Hari, may you be triumphant!" 

Q^erse 21 

amala-kamala-dala-locana bhava-mocana e 
tri-bhuvana-bhavana-nidhdna jaya jaya deva hare (5) 

O Deva! O Hari! Your wide eyes resemble the petals of an immaculate lotus 
flower. You bestow emancipation from the sorrow of material existence. You 


Act One 

are the foundation of the three worlds. May you be triumphant! May you be 


This verse portrays Krsna as the chivalrous hero (dhiroddtta ndyakd). 

Amala-kamala-dala-locana (amale ye kamala-dale te iva locane yasyd 'sau 
tathd vidhah tat sambuddhaii) - "He whose eyes are immaculate like the petals 
of a spotless lotus flower." His eyes allay the suffering and steal away the heart, 
mind and prana of all, as stated in Sri Caitanya-caritdmrta (Madhya-llld 21.105). 

terache netrdnta vdna, tdra drdha sandhdna 
vindhe rddhd-gopi-gana-rnana 

The powerful arrow of his sidelong glance pierces the hearts of Radha and 
the gopis. 

Bhava-mocana - Bhagavan compassionately delivers his devotees from the 
endless chain of birth and death and he protects all living entities. 

Tribhuvana-bhavana-nidhdna - Sri Hari pervades the three planetary divi- 
sions of the universe (tribhuvand) . He is the storehouse of treasure (nidhi) in the 
palace (bhavand) of the three worlds, the primal cause and the original father. 

All the qualities of the chivalrous hero - gravity, courtesy, forgiveness, 
compassion, adherence to one's vows, modesty in speaking, honesty and the 
power to thwart the pride of other heroes - exist in their fullness only in the 
Supreme Personality, Sri Krsna. 

"May you be triumphant!" 


Q^erse 22 

janaka-suta-krta-bhusana jita-dusana e 
samara-samita-dasakantha jay a jay a deva hare (6) 

O Deva! O Hari! You decorate Sita-devI in your incarnation as Sri Rama. You 
defeat the demon Dusana and you restore peace to the world by killing the ten- 
headed Ravana in battle. May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


Janaka-suta-krta-bhusana - "O Deva, as a chivalrous hero, you decorate the 
daughter of Janaka Maharaja with your own hands. Your complexion is as dark 
as freshly grown durva grass. Therefore you are the ornament of Sita's golden 
form. O you who are steadfast in your vows, may you be triumphant!" 

Jita-dusana e (jita-dusanau yend 'sau) - "During your exile in the Dandaka 
forest, you kill the cannibal Dusana." 

Samara-samita-dasakantha - "The demon king Ravana was steadfast in 
battle, belligerent and boastful. Yet you made such a powerful warrior fall to 
the ground and become silent. O master of all chivalrous heroes! O Hari, may 
you who are adorned with the attributes of profound dignity and forgiveness be 

O^erse 23 

abhinava-jaladhara-sundara dhrta-mandara e 
sri-mukha-candra-cakora jay a jay a deva hare (7) 


O Syamasundara, your complexion is lustrous like a fresh raincloud. O holder of 
the Mandara Mountain! As a cakora bird pines for the moon, you are incessantly 
attached to the moonlike face of the supreme goddess of fortune, Sri Radha. 
O Hari! O Deva! May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


Act One 


In this verse the poet has presented the pastimes of various incarnations of 
Bhagavan while establishing the predominance of the romantic hero (dhira- 
lalita ndyakd). 

Dhrta-mandara - "When Mandara Mountain would not remain steady, 
you became a tortoise and held it firmly in place. Simultaneously assuming 
another form, you then assisted the demigods in churning the ocean of 
milk." Alternatively, dhrta-mandara means "You who hold firm the bosom of 
Sri Radha." 

Srl-mukha-candr a- cakora - The lotus face of Radha is a constant source of 
joy for Krsna. As a cakora bird in a state of distraction stares with unblinking 
eyes in the direction of the moon, Bhagavan feels extreme jubilation seeing 
Radha's enchanting face. "O Deva! O Hari! May you be triumphant!" 

The phrase abhinava-jaladhara sundara sheds light upon Bhagavan's fresh 
youthfulness. The word cakora indicates that he is subjugated by the affection 
of his lovers. The phrase dhrta-mandara, referring to Krsna's pastime of holding 
the breasts of Radha, reveals his dexterity in amorous play. These three qualities 
are prominent in the romantic hero. "O master, may you be triumphant!" 

O^erse 2$ 

tava carane pranata vayam iti bhavaya e 
kuru kusalam pranatesu jay a jay a deva hare (8) 

O Bhagavan, we have taken exclusive refuge at your lotus feet. May you confer 
auspiciousness by blessing us with the gift of transcendental love. O Deva! 
O Hari! May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


Sri Jayadeva beseeches Sri Krsna to mercifully confer auspiciousness upon the 
reciters and hearers of his poem. "O ocean of auspicious qualities, we bow 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


down and surrender at your lotus feet. May you destroy all the sins and suffering 
of your devotees. You and your pastimes are the embodiment of the highest 
bliss. May you kindly expand our joy by granting a vision of those pastimes 
within our hearts." 

Q^erse 2S 

sri-jayadeva-kaver idam kurute mudam e 
mangalam ujjvala-gitarh jay a jay a deva hare (9) 

O Deva, may this charming, radiant and melodious invocation of auspiciousness 
(mangalacarand) composed by Sri Jayadeva increase your happiness. May it 
bestow bliss upon your devotees who hear and recite your glorious qualities. 
May you be triumphant! May you be triumphant! 


On completing his eulogy of Bhagavan, Sri Jayadeva presents this humble 
supplication, "O Deva, by reciting this auspicious invocation, I have taken a 
vow to sing about the mellows of paramour love, ujjvala-rasa, and to describe 
your amorous pastimes with Radha. Simply by doing so, turbulent waves of 
euphoria have begun to rise within my heart. If there is so much bliss in this 
invocation, then I cannot estimate how much there will be in the narration of 
your pastimes. May my auspicious song be a source of joy for you both and may 
it also confer spiritual success upon those who hear and recite it." 
The metre of this song is mangala chanda. 



Act (Sine 

Q^erse 26 

O s3 s5 C\ 

^IMM^HHM^d fjRT ^: II 9^ II 

kdsmlra-mudritam uro madhusudanasya 

vyaktdnurdgam iva khelad-ananga-kheda- 
sveddmbu-puram anupurayatu priyam vah 

After embracing Radha, Krsna's chest bears the coloured kunkuma imprint 
of her breasts, as if the deep love within his heart is manifesting outwardly. 
His chest is also covered with droplets of perspiration from the exertion of 
passionate love-games (kandarpa-krlda). May the chest of Madhusudana, deco- 
rated thus during union with his beloved, fulfil the hearts' desires of you all. 

After offering obeisance to Sri Krsna in the previous song, Sri Jayadeva has 
recited the present verse to benedict the audience. 

Padmd-payodhara-tati - When Krsna embraces his dearest beloved, the 
vermillion cosmetic (kunkuma- kesara) that was smeared down to her nipples 
melts and makes an imprint of her breast upon Bhagavan's chest. His heart 
is always coloured by deep attachment (anurdga) to Radha and his affection 
for her is incomparable. The words payodhara-tati indicate that Radha's full 
breasts are highly raised and that her nipples resemble the peak of a mountain 
surrounded by uneven terrain. 

Parirambha-lagna-kdsmtra - The print of Radha's breasts on Krsna's chest 
indicates their immersion in a prolonged embrace. 


Mudritam uro - The image of Radha's bosom on Krsna's chest has been 
printed like a seal of approval. The beauty of his chest is enhanced immeasur- 
ably by this display of love. Oh, how virtuous is their excessive affection. 

Vyaktdnurdgam iva - The loving attachment (anurdga) previously hidden 
within his heart has become clearly manifest. It has manifested its colour 
outwardly so his heart cannot be smeared by the love of anyone else. 

Khelad-ananga-kheda-sveddmbu-puram - Droplets of perspiration on 
Krsna's broad chest tell of his exhaustion from prolonged engagement in the 
sports of Cupid. Thus the love within his heart has become visible, disguised as 
a mixture of her vermillion and his perspiration. 

Anupurayatu priyam vah - "May Krsna's vermillion-coloured chest fulfil our 
most cherished desires by increasing the divine love in our hearts." 

This verse has been sung in vasanta rdga, alluding to the nature of Bhagavan 
in springtime. The heroine is mugdhd ndyikd and the hero is kusala ndyaka. 
Here we find vasanta-tilakd chanda. The alankdras include dsih, utpreksd and 
anuprdsa. The rasa is srngdra. 

Scene Three 

Q^erse 27 

vasante vdsantt-kusuma-sukumdrair avayavair 

bhramantlm kdntdre bahu-vihita-krsndnusarandm 

amandam kandarpa-jvara-janita-cintdkulatayd 
valad-bddhdm rddhdrh sarasam idam uce sahacarl 


Act ©ne 

Once, in the splendid spring season, when Radhika was pining for Krsna, she 
began to search for him in one forest grove after another. Her elegant, young 
limbs, soft as mddhavt flowers, grew weary and Cupid made her mind delirious 
with anxiety. At that time, her intimate friend lovingly addressed her as follows. 


Sri Jayadeva has depicted the pre-eminent virtues of Sri Radha-Madhava by 
describing their auspicious and endearing meeting. In that prologue, the lotus 
of the poet's heart began to bloom with joy. Therefore he was moved to portray 
Krsna as Radhika's anukula ndyaka, adorned with the attributes of the daksina, 
dhrsta and satha ndyaka. In accordance with suci-katdha-nydya, the logic of 
accomplishing a relatively effortless task prior to attempting a strenuous one, 
Sri Sukadeva first demonstrated the excellence of all the gopts before finally 
establishing the supremacy of Radha. Similarly, Sri Jayadeva will describe herein 
the symptoms of eight types of ndyikd 5 in Radha, ultimately to establish her as 
the crest jewel of all heroines. 

In the current verse Radhika is depicted as a heroine who is anxious due to 
separation from her beloved (utkanthitd ndyika). Bharata Muni has explained 
the symptoms of this heroine in Ndtya-sdstra, his work on dramatic theory. This 
heroine is wanton, afflicted with sensual passion and a high fever. The limbs of 
her lacklustre body tremble, her bodily hair stands on end and she is repeatedly 
bewildered. She experiences bodily tremors and intense horripilation. Her 
speech is impelled by fervent impatience. In Srngdra-tilaka (1.78) the symptoms 
of virahotkanthitd ndyikd have been described as follows: 

utkd bhavati sd yasydh 

sanketam ndgatah priyah 
tasyd 'ndgamane hetum 

cintayaty dkuld yathd 

3 The eight types of nayika are (1) abhisarika, (2) vasakasajja, (3) utkanthita, (4) khandita, 
(5) vipralabdha, (6) kalahantarita, (7) prosita-bhartrkd, (8) svddhlna-bhartrkd. 


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A heroine whose hero does not arrive punctually at the appointed meeting 
place is called virahotkanthita ndyikd. She carefully ponders over the 
reasons for her beloved's absence and becomes fraught with anxiety 

The current verse is the foundation of vipralambha-srngdra, a lover's 
sentiments during separation. The poet narrates an incident in which one sakhl 
of Radhika says, "O Radha, your body is as soft as a mddhavl flower, yet you are 
wandering in search of your lover here in the undergrowth of the forest, which 
is full of thorns and sharp grass. Despite searching extensively, you have not 
found your dearest one. You are tormented by Cupid's arrows and burning in a 
fever of sensuous desires as you pine for Krsna's association." 

The specific time or season, indicated by the word vasanta, springtime, is 
the stimulant (uddlpana-vibhdvd) in this verse. The word calad (an alternative 
reading for the word valad) is an adjective referring to Radha, indicating that she 
has repeatedly searched for Krsna in the forest. Hoping against hope, she thinks, 
"Perhaps my dearest is about to arrive. He may come at any moment now." 

Vdsanti-kusuma-sukumdrair avayavaih - "The limbs of Radha's body 
resemble spring flowers." The comparison has been made to convey the tender- 
ness of her youthful beauty. 

Vdsanti-kusuma - The mddhavl vine comes into full bloom during the spring 
season. This phrase indicates that Sri Radha's limbs are as enchanting and 
delicate as the flowers of the mddhavl vine. 

"O Radha, it is certain that your beloved has abandoned you, and now he 
must be enjoying loving pastimes with someone else. On the night of the first 
autumnal rdsa-llld, Krsna experienced your incomparable sweetness and began 
to consider his celebrated loving attachment to you to be successful. Therefore, 
sometimes he searches around for a few days, as if mining for precious stones, 
just to find out whether or not anyone in Vraja-mandala is equal to you. To 
satisfy his curiosity, Yogamaya inspired Karhsa to send Akrura to Nanda Gaon. 
Then Krsna set off with Akrura for Mathura, which is densely populated with an 
astronomical number of women. 

"Krsna discovered that no one in Mathura-mandala could compare with 
the beauty and attractive qualities of the damsels of Vraja. Then he set off for 
Dvaraka, as if impelled by the desire to find your equal. In Dvaraka he married 


Act One 

the daughters of kings, but still his quest was not complete. Then he married 
the sixteen thousand princesses who had been kidnapped by Narakasura. They 
included celestial maidens, maidens amongst the attendants of Kuvera, the 
daughters of serpents, and human damsels. But still, O Radhika, he could not 
find anyone like you, so he has returned again to Vraja after killing Dantavakra." 
Krsna's return to Vraja, after his long-term domicile in a distant land, is 
discussed in Padma Purdna: 

krsno pi tarn dantavakram hatvd yamundm uttirya nanda-vrajam gatvd 
sotkanthau pitarau abhivddydsvdsya tdbhydm sdsru-kantham dlingitah 
sakala gopa-vrnddn pranamydsvdsya sarvdn santarpaydm dsa 

After killing Dantavakra, Krsna crossed the Yamuna and arrived in Vraja. 
There he offered obeisances to Nanda and Yasoda and comforted them in 
various ways. They bathed Krsna in their tears and pacified their long-lived 
anguish by embracing him to their hearts. Then he met with all the other 
cowherders and relieved their sorrows. Finally, he met with the gopis and 
soothed their pain of separation. 

In the First Canto of Srtmad-Bhdgavatam, the residents of Dvaraka say: 

yarhy ambujdksdpasasdra bho bhavdn 

kurun madhun vdtha suhrd-didrksayd 
tatrdbda-koti-pratimah ksano bhaved 

ravim vindksnor iva nas tavdcyuta 

O Lotus-eyed one, when you go away to Kurudesa and Madhupuri (Vraja- 
mandala), one moment seems like ten million aeons. As the eyes see only 
darkness in the absence of the sun, in your absence all four directions 
appear to be an empty desolate void. 

The gopis' happiness upon meeting with their beloved during the spring 
season is heart-touching; and their separation when distanced from him is 
heart-rending. Radha's sakhi is reminding her of both subjects. 

This verse includes vaidarbhi riti and upandgarikd vrtti. The metre, sikharini 
chanda, is defined thus: rasaih rudrais chinnd ya-ma-na-sa-bha-ld-gah 





The musical mode is vasanta raga and the rhythm 
is yati tdla. 

pusnan pikam cuta-navdnkurena 

bhraman mudd-rdmam ananga rnurtir 
marto mdtango hi vasanta-rdgah 

The vasanta raga personified wears a peacock 
feather upon his head. He nourishes a throng of 
the finest cuckoos with freshly sprouted mango 
buds. His body resembles Kamadeva and he 
wanders joyfully like the madly intoxicated king of 



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viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante 

nrtyati yuvati-janena samam sakhi virahi-janasya durante 

(refrain) (1) 


"My dear friend Radha. Alas, springtime is excruciating for the forlorn and 
lonely-hearted. Don't look! The Malaya breeze is so enchanting as he arrives 
and impetuously embraces the tender, charming creepers again and again. The 
forest bower is permeated with the sweet kuhu sound of the cuckoos and the 
drone of bees as they bumble to and fro. Moreover, Krsna is also dancing in this 
forest bower. He is enjoying romantic pastimes with some fortunate young lady, 
while immersed in a festival of love." 


In springtime the trees are infused with new life by the touch of the Malaya 
breeze. Bumblebees hum with excitement on blossoms such as belt and 
camelt. The cuckoos coo when they find fresh buds on the mango trees. In that 
atmosphere, Krsna appears like an elephant maddened with lust. Wearing a 
peacock feather in his turban, he mesmerizes all living entities. 

Vasanta rdga is prominent in springtime. In yati tdla there is triputi of laghu 
and druta. The word sakhi conveys the feeling of intimate friendship. 

Sarasa-vasante - the adjective sarasa indicates that the season of spring is 
relishable and full of astonishing mellows. 

Virahi-janasya durante - It is difficult for abandoned lovers to pass the time 
in this provocative spring season. Sri Hari steals the mind, heart and prana of 
everyone by his appealing pastimes, so separation from him becomes all the 
more problematic and intolerable in springtime. 

Lalita-lavanga-latd-parisilana-komala-malaya-samire- This phrase describes 


Act One 

the speciality of the location. The Malaya breeze was already cool, gentle and 
fragrant, but it has become even more so by the touch of the elegant clove vines. 

Madhukara-nikara-karambita-kokila-kujita-kunja-kutire - The etymology 
of this line is, madhukardndm yo hi nikaras tena karambitdh misritdh ye 
kokildstaih kujitah yah kunja kutirah tatra - "The dancing place is a forest 
bower resounding with the humming of bees and the cooing of cuckoos." 

A female attendant is describing the beauty of springtime in Vrndavana to 
the anxious, lonely heroine (virahotkanthita) Radha: 

"The fragrance of the flowers, the touch of the Malaya breeze, the coolness 
of Yamuna's water, the handsome trees tightly embraced by attractive 
clove creepers, the burgeoning vines and the tender touch of one's lover's 
limbs - however pleasant the spring season may be when lovers meet, it is 
equally distressing during separation. 

"If an unconscious vine cannot bear to be without her beloved in the 
excitement of the romantic season, then how can a fully conscious vine -like 
woman? Now the drone of the bees and the cooing of the cuckoos is ever more 
heart-wrenching. When the minds of great sages are attracted by the fragrance 
of mddhavi and ^//flowers, then what can be said of hopeful lovers?" 

As Radha's friend was speaking, she attained sphurti, a momentary inner 
vision of Madhava. She continued, "When a mango tree is embraced by a 
mddhavi vine, it sprouts into new buds, just like a man whose hair stands on 
end when he is embraced by a beautiful woman. In the same way, enchanted by 
Vrndavana's beautiful riverside forest, today Sri Hari revels in romantic sports, 
while absorbed in the embrace of charming young ladies." 

This verse describes the excitants (uddtpana-vibhdvd) that nourish amorous 
love in separation (vipralambha-srngdra-rasd). 



viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (2) 


"My dear friend, when husbands travel away from home, their lonely wives 
lament and weep incessantly. But look! The mdlati trees are covered with 
flowers. There is no vacant space left upon their branches. Innumerable groups 
of bumblebees are humming upon clusters of bakula flowers. And over there, 
Krsna is dancing as he revels in pastimes of love with other youthful mistresses. 
Alas! How can I hold my patience?" 


Radharanfs companion is painting a picture of the vexatious, impassioning 
nature of spring, "This season is immensely troublesome for lonely lovers 
because it incites passion and lust. Heroines, whose dearest ones have gone 
to distant lands, pine incessantly because they cannot satisfy their inflamed 
desires. When flowers such as bakula spread their fragrance in all directions, 
swarms of jubilant bumblebees begin to hum as if in a state of intense agitation." 

O^erse 30 


viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (3) 


"Adorned with new leaves, the tamdla trees delight in diffusing their musk-like 
fragrance in all directions. Sakhi, look! These lustrous paldsa flowers resemble 
the fingernails of Kamadeva. It seems that the King of amorous love has torn at 
the bosom of youthful couples." 


Act One 

"All directions are now pervaded by the fragrance of newly grown tamdla 
leaves, which resembles the scent of kasturV 

The inner meaning is that all directions are infused with Madhava's bodily 
fragrance, making separation from him unbearable. 

"The multitude of fully blossomed palasa flowers appear to be fingernails, 
Cupid's special weapons for breaking the hearts of separated young couples." 

By saying that young women's hearts are rent asunder by the sight of palasa 
flowers, the sakhi implies that separation is extremely harsh. 

Q^erse 31 


viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (4) 


"Blossoming ndga-kesara flowers appear to be the golden rods of King Cupid 4 , 
and the clusters of pdtali flowers surrounded by bumblebees appear to be his 


"Sakhi, the ndga-kesara flowers are blooming and they resemble the lustre of 
His Majesty King Cupid's golden umbrella. When flowers are wounded by the 
arrows of the bumblebees' 'teeth', it breaks the hearts of lonely lovers." 

4 According to Vedic cosmology, Cupid is responsible for the powerful emotional and physical 
attraction between male and female. Throughout Sri GRa-govinda he is referred to variously 
as Kamadeva (the god of lust), Kandarpa (the inflamer of passion), Madana (sensual 
intoxication personified), Anaiiga (the unembodied flower archer), Manasija (one who 
appears within the mind). 


O^erse 32 


viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (5) 


"It seems that the whole world has become shameless by the formidable 
influence of spring. Seeing this, the young, compassionate trees are laughing 
on the pretext of bursting into flower. Look! Shaped like javelins for piercing 
the hearts of lonely lovers, the screw-pine flowers are blossoming brightly in all 
directions and the directions are also overjoyed to unite with them." 


Sri Radha's companion continues, "Dear sakhi, what more can I say? In spring- 
time, lonely ones abandon their shyness and cry out loud in separation from 
their beloveds. Springtime also vanquishes the bashfulness of all creatures 
throughout the creation. Seeing the world in this condition, the youthful and 
compassionate trees blossom, dispersing the nectar of laughter on the pretext 
of scattering their radiant flowers. It is as if young men are revealing the nectar 
of their laughter, understanding the lusty desires in the hearts of sensuous 

How can compassion and laughter possibly occur simultaneously? When 
intimate lovers are separated, they are filled with compassion and pity because 
they feel so wretched. Then they lose their equilibrium and begin to laugh 
nervously. They feel that the tips of screw-pine (ketaki) flowers are lances meant 
to spear their hearts. 


Act One 

O^erse 33 

mddhavikd-parimala-lalite nava-mdlikaydti-sugandhau 
muni-manasdm api mohana-kdrini tarundkdrana-bandhau 

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (6) 


"The nectar of spring flowers and the aroma of jasmine blossoms are enthralling. 
Even the minds of great sages are agitated in springtime and they suddenly 
become bewildered. Spring is the selfless friend of the young." 


"The spring season is charming because the whole atmosphere is fragrant with 
the delightful aroma of jasmine (nava-malika) and the pollen of spring flowers 
(mddhavi). If this stimulation arouses lust within the minds of great sages, what 
can be said of its effect on ordinary males? Even unconscious creepers cannot 
bear to be without their lovers (the trees) during this provocative season, so 
how can we conscious vine-like young ladies tolerate loneliness? With the drone 
of the bees and the cooing of the cuckoos, this spring season is the selfless 
friend of young couples." 

Q^erse 3% 

vrnddvana-vipine parisara-parigata-yamund-jala-pute 

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (7) 


"O my dear friend, the mango trees in the forest groves of Vrndavana are 
covered with freshly sprouted buds because they are thrilled by the embrace 
of the restless mddhavi creepers. Sri Hari is affectionately playing with young 
women in the pure water of the Yamuna that flows alongside those forest 



"In springtime, even inert substances become agitated by lust. Impelled by the 
breeze, the spring-flower vine caresses the mango tree, causing it to thrill with 
horripilation in the form of new buds. The Yamuna flows nearby, purifying the 
groves of Vrndavana where Sri Hari is enjoying amorous pastimes." 

Q^erse 35 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam udayati hari-carana-smrti-sdram 
sarasa-vasanta-samaya-vana-varnanam anugata-madana-vikdram 

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante... (8) 

This auspicious, rasa-laden song has perfectly manifested through Sri Jayadeva. 
The portrayal of the forest in springtime is suffused with the erotic aberrations 
of Radha when she is overwhelmed with anxiety in separation from Krsna. 
Woven together with transformations of passion, the spring season awakens 
remembrance of the lotus feet of Sri Hari. 


To conclude, Sri Jayadeva defines the specific excellence of this song. Krsna's 
romantic amusements in the forest during spring nourish srngara-rasa. This 
auspicious song embodies the very essence of contemplation upon the lotus feet 
of Sri Hari because it is a concealed expression of those pastimes. 

May this song be victorious. In other words, may those who are disturbed by 
lust have the opportunity to hear this song so that their lust may be eradicated 

This song features jdti alankdra and laya chanda. Radha is madhyd ndyikd 
and Krsna is daksina ndyaka. The rasa is vipralambha-srngara. 

This third song is entitled Madhavotsava-kamaldkara. 


Act (Sine 

Q^erse 36 

M^^^H^|U|M|U|c|rt^c||^: II 3^ || 


prakatita-patavdsair vdsayan kdnandni 
iha hi dahati cetah ketaki-gandha-bandhuh 



"O sakhi, look! The forest is covered with the fragrant white powder of 
pollen from half-opened mallikd buds. The Malaya breeze, a bosom friend of 
Kamadeva, is invigorated by the aroma of ketakt flowers. He acts like Cupid's 
arrow, burning the hearts of lonely lovers in the forest." 


Alluding to the arousing effect of the Malaya breeze in springtime, Radha's 
companion says, a This gently moving air sets fire to the hearts of lonely lovers." 

One may ask, "Why does the air burn their consciousness? What offence 
have they committed?" The answer is given here: 

"He burns the hearts of lonely lovers just to obey the order of his bosom 

A bosom friend is as dear as one's life-air (prana). Therefore the gently 
moving air is likened to Kamadeva's friend. Friends are also like-minded. This 
quality is revealed by his concurrent behaviour. 

When mallikd vines blossom slightly, a white layer of radiant pollen spreads 
profusely like a white petticoat (patavdsd). 

This verse, composed in mdlint chanda, contains a combination of samdsokti 
and varndnuprdsa alankdras. 


Q^erse 37 

MI<^c|^i|H+ufd *fi<s|U^tflfHtf: I 

4-Hltffcl ^: *^R[d cbrtl-Hlrtl: tent f*TT: II ?V9 II 

adyotsanga-vasad-bhujanga-kavala-klesdd ivesdcalam 
prdleya-plavanecchaydnusarati srikhanda-saildnilah 

kith ca snigdha-rasdla-mauli-mukuldny dlokya harsodaydd 
unmilanti kuhuh kuhur iti kalottdldh pikdndm girah 


"O sakhi, I have heard that many snakes live in Malaya Mountain. The wind 
from that direction must be devastated by the burning poison of those snakes. 
Now it seems to be moving in the direction of the Himalayas to take bath in the 
icy water there. 

"Sakhi, look! The cuckoos are loudly singing kuhu-kuhu in mellifluous 
voices. They are jubilant on seeing the tender and tasty mango buds." 


In this verse Radha's sakhi paints a picture of two intensifiers (vibhdvas) of 

"During this particular month, the air of the Malaya Mountain (Srikhanda- 
saila) moves in the direction of the snow-covered Himalayan region. Poisonous 
snakes reside in the sandalwood trees of the Malaya Mountain, so the wind 
sets out in the direction of the Himalayas to find relief from the burning of 
snakebites. It seems that the wind wants to feel the bliss enjoyed by the cool air 
of the Himalayas. 

"New buds appear on mango trees in spring. The cuckoos are delighted to 
see the mango blossoms, so they loudly sing out, c kuhu-kuhu\ O Radha, it is not 
proper for you to be inhibited before Krsna at such a provocative and exciting 


Act ©ne 

This verse includes anuprdsa and upamd alankdras, vaidarbhi riti and 
sdrdula-vikridita chanda. The sthdyibhdva is srngdra-rati in separation. 

QPerse 38 

HMHI"l«HI«HIMH<«)ai&*A ^T*RT: II ?d II 

krldat-kokila-kdkall-kalakalair udglrna-karna-jvardh 

niyante pathikaih katham katham api dhydndvadhdna-ksana- 
prdpta-prdnasamd-samdgama-rasolldsair ami vdsardh 


"O sakhi, look! The bumblebees are obsessed with the aroma of mango 
blossoms. The call of cuckoos at play upon the radiant buds mixes with the 
humming of the bees to make a mellifluous sound. But this clamour is a fever 
for the ears of separated lovers. They pass their days anxiously remembering 
their lovers, who are as dear as life itself. By meditating upon their faces in the 
sorrow of separation, a moment of happiness comes when, just for an instant, 
they feel the joy of being together. Then they praise that distressful time." 


Radha's sakhi admits that separation is difficult to tolerate. In the absence 
of Krsna, the Malaya breeze simply inflicts pain. Furthermore, the sweet 
murmuring sound of cuckoos reverberates in all directions and stirs feelings of 
deep regret in the hearts of the lonely. It creates an outbreak of high fever in 
their ears. The cuckoos' voices remind them of their lovers and for a moment 
they feel as if they have united with them. This moment of distress is laudable. 

The current verse contains kdvyalinga alankdra, sdrdula-vikridita chanda, 
gaudiyd riti and vipralambha-srngdra-rasa. Plural usage of the word vdsardh is 
an example of aucitya, appropriateness. 


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murdrim drdd upadarsayanty asau 
sakhi samaksam punar aha rddhikdm 


Then Radhika's sakhi expertly searched for Krsna 

and saw that he was nearby. He was immersed in 

ioyful pastimes with beautiful young gopis, who 

v^ere receiving him with the utmost respect. An 

mse greed for delightful, sensuous pastimes 

addenly awakened in Krsna's mind when the 

gopis showed their eagerness to embrace him. 

Pointing out this scene to Radha, the sakhi spoke 

C3 to her again in a hidden place. 


Act <&>ne 

Thus far the poet has revealed Radha's intensely 
inflamed emotions (sudipta-bhdvd) through a vivid 
description of the beauty of the forest. Now Radha's 
friend directly exposes Krsna's intentions by telling her, 
"Sakhi, look! What is Murari doing now?" 

Although Krsna was embraced by many young 
ladies, he was not satisfied. Instead, he was 
overwhelmed with an intense eagerness to meet with 
Radha and enjoy loving pastimes with her. 

Sri Krsna's pastimes are eternal; therefore they are 
also eternally perceptible. Three types of perception 
occur in separation: remembrance (srnarana), an 
internal vision (sphurti) and direct appearance 
(dvirbhdva). This particular pastime is appropriately 
accepted as a sphurti. 

In this verse the chanda is vamsasthavila, the 
alankdra is anuprdsa and the hero is daksina ndyaka. 




The musical mode is ramakari raga and the rhythm is yati talc 

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Act (Sine 


harir iha mugdha-vadhu-nikare 
vildsini vilasati keli-pare (refrain) (1) 


"O playful Radha, look! Dressed in yellow cloth and a garland of forest flowers, 
with sandalwood paste smeared upon his dark limbs, Krsna feels the utmost 
elation as he enjoys pastimes with captivated young brides in this Vrndavana 
forest. His earrings swing to and fro, the beauty of his cheeks is astonishing and 
his face displays a wondrous sweetness with the honey of his playful laughter." 


The rdga of this song is rdmakarl and the tdla is jhampd. According to the 
author of Rasa-manjarl, the tdla is rupaka. 

A heroine dresses in blue cloth and adorns herself with golden ornaments 
that resemble the dawn sky. Seeing her impetuous indignation, the hero sits at 
her feet and begins to placate her. The rdga employed to capture this moment is 
called rdmakarl. 

Krsna was revelling in amorous amusements amidst an assembly of playful 
heroines not far from where Radha is observing everything along with her 
companion. On beholding this scene, an intense yearning to enjoy pastimes 
with Sri Krsna suddenly awakened in the mind of Sri Radha. Therefore, as Krsna 
embraced one beautiful gopi in a solitary grove, a vision of Radha began to 
manifest in his heart. 

The word mugdha can mean "inexperienced heroine" (mugdhd ndyikd) and 
also "beautiful". Both meanings are intended in this context. The word vildsa 
refers to an ecstatic emotional ornament characterized by hdva and bhdva. As 
stated by Bharata Muni in Ndtya-sdstra: 


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sthdne ydndsane vdpi 

netra vaktrddi karmand 
utpddyate viseso yah 

sa-vildsah praklrtitah 

Enchanting bodily postures and expressions of the eyes and face while 
moving, sitting or walking are called vildsa. 

The word smita indicates that Krsna is smiling. Mild laughter is called smita. 
In the words of Bharata Muni: 

isad vikasitair gandaih 

katdksaih sausthavdnvitaih 
alaksita dvijam dhlram 

uttamdndm smitarh bhavet 

Smita occurs when a person who is smiling does not show his teeth. His 
cheeks are sure to blossom slightly as he casts a charming sidelong glance. 

Q^erse 4] 

plna-payodhara-bhdra-bharena harirh parirabhya sa-rdgam 
gopa-vadhur anugdyati kdcid udancita-pancama-rdgam 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (2) 

"Look, sakhi\ One gopt is firmly embracing Krsna with intense attachment. 
Pressing the heavy burden of her voluptuous breasts against Krsna's chest, she 
has begun to sing with him in the fifth musical mode." 


Radha's friend is relaying the gopis' activities with Sri Krsna as they are hap- 
pening. "O Radha, your love-play with Krsna is unequalled and unsurpassed. 
Krsna is being passionately embraced by one proud, buxom gopt, but this is just 


Act One 

a dim reflection of his pastimes with you. Indeed, how can this beautiful damsel 
possibly be compared with you? 

"Now Sri Hari is singing in the fifth raga and she responds by singing along 
in the same way." 

By describing the gopi's breasts as full and round, it is implied that she is 
stunningly beautiful. 

"Krsna is showing a lack of dexterity here. Therefore this gopi is embracing 
him without even trying to be embraced by him. Although his secret amorous 
exchanges are sweet, how can they really excel without you? Srngara-rasa 
matures when mutual embracing occurs and that is only possible with you. 
Look at Syamasundara's endeavour to perform pastimes with others, even 
though he is constantly remembering you." 

Pancama raga, the fifth musical mode, is usually sung to accompany 
srngara-rasa, as stated by Bharata Muni: 

pancamam madhya bhuyistham 
hasya srngarayor bhavet 

Pancama raga in madhya-tdla is predominant in hasya and srngara-rasa. 

Q^erse %2 

kdpi vildsa-vilola-vilocana-khelana-janita-manojam 
dhydyati mugdha-vadhur adhikam madhusudana-vadana-sarojam 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (3) 


"Look, sakhil This gopi is meditating on Krsna. He arouses lust in the hearts of 
sensuous young ladies with the romantic sidelong glances of his restless eyes, 
and she is greedy to drink the honey of his lotus face." 


Describing an enchanted heroine (mugdha ndyikd), Radha's sakhi says, "This 
gopi is meditating on Krsna's lotus face. As Syamasundara revels in loving 


pastimes, his restless eyes display suggestive expressions. He intensifies the 
sensual appetite of the best of attractive ladyloves by casting his playful glance 
upon them and he feels immense bliss within the core of his heart." 

The mugdhd ndyikd is very shy, therefore her amatory endeavours are 
inhibited by behavioural conventions. 

Q^erse ^3 

kdpi kapola-tale militd lapitum kim api sruti-mule 
cdru cucumba nitambavatt dayitam pulakair anukule 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (4) 

"Sakhi, look at that! One curvaceous milkmaid has leant her face close to Krsna's 
cheek on the pretext of whispering a secret in his ear. When Krsna understood 
her love -laden intention, his bodily hair stood on end. Seeing his reaction, that 
expert heroine has seized this favourable opportunity to fulfil her cherished 
desire. With the utmost delight, she has begun to kiss his cheek." 


The word nitambavatt - "a woman whose hips are large and shapely" - has 
been used to convey the exquisite physical beauty of a mature heroine. It is 
improper to kiss one's beloved in the presence of one's friends. Therefore, on 
the pretext of informing Krsna about something else, she kissed the far side of 
his cheek. This is indicative of the heroine's expertise in loving affairs (srngdra- 
vaidagdhya). Krsna reciprocates as anukula ndyaka. 

Q^erse W 

keli-kald-kutukena ca kdcid amum yamund-jala-kule 
manjula-vanjula-kunja-gatam vicakarsa karena dukule 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (5) 


Act ©ne 

"Sakhi, look! One gopi discovered a secluded place in a charming grove of cane 
on the bank of Yamuna. Impelled by kdma-rasa and a joyful fascination for 
the amatory arts, she caught hold of Krsna's yellow cloth with both hands and 
dragged him away." 


Sri Radha's friend is describing an unsteady heroine (adhird ndyika). "When 
Krsna entered a flowering bower, this temperamental heroine, consumed by a 
curiosity to delight in the erotic arts, snatched Krsna's cloth and brought him 
onto the bank of Yamuna." 

The word ca (and) implies that she began to joke with Krsna in various ways 
upon noticing a place that afforded complete privacy. 

The words yamund-ttre - "on the bank of Yamuna" - have not been used. 
Rather, the phrase yarnund-jala-tire has been employed to indicate that the river 
bank is cool and pure like water (Jala). 

Pulling Krsna away by his cloth when he shows signs of being attached to 
another heroine is typical of the temperamental lover (adhird ndyika). 

Q^erse ^S 

rasa-rase saha-nrtya-pard harind yuvatih prasasamse 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (6) 

"One young lady claps her hands while dancing, enraptured in the ecstasy of 
the rasa. Sri Hari praises her upon hearing the marvellous melody of his flute 
combined with the sound of her trembling bangles." 


The saMz tells Radha that one young lady is clapping her hands with the utmost 
dexterity of rhythm and tone (tana, mana, laya) while dancing with Krsna 
in the rasa-ltla. Her bangles collide together to make a rhythmic jingle that 
complements the sound of his flute. Hearing this astonishingly sweet music, 
Krsna repeatedly applauds his attractive lover. 

Q^erse %6 

slisyati kam api cumbati kam api kam api ramayati rdmdm 
pasyati sa-smita-cdrutardm apardm anugacchati vdmdm 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (7) 


"Impelled by his craving for srngdra-rasa, Krsna is embracing one of his 
beloveds; he is kissing another and somewhere else he enjoys passionate 
congress with another. Elsewhere he gazes expectantly at the face of another 
lover, while appreciating the nectar of her sweet smile. Somewhere else he is 
following a woman who has left him in a huff." 


Sri Krsna has assumed many forms to enjoy varieties of romantic activities 
simultaneously with all the heroines who are intent on sporting with him. 
Impelled by a craving for the happiness of sensual union, Krsna sometimes 
embraces one impassioned woman; sometimes he kisses another. Somewhere 
he is strolling with one gopi and elsewhere he is glancing with intense thirst 
for the ravishing beauty of another. Sometimes he accidentally addresses a fine 
young woman, "O Radha!" Consequently she becomes indignant and leaves in 
a huff. Krsna is so anxious for her love that he follows behind and uses various 
ploys to make her return. When that sulky gopi refuses his amorous advances, 
he tries to soften her anger with humble requests for conciliation. 


Act One 

This verse portrays Krsna as the satha, dhrsta, daksina, anukula and dhurta 
heroes. The heroines are all abhisdrikd ndyikds. 

The symptoms of dhrsta nayaka have been defined in Srngdra-tilaka: 

abhivyaktdnya taruni 

bhoga-laksmdpi nirbhayah 
mithyd-vacana daksas ca 

dhrsto yam khalu kathyate 

Although the signs of lovemaking with another young woman are clearly 
visible on his person, the hero who expertly and fearlessly concocts a 
fraudulent alibi is called dhrsta nayaka. {Srngara-tilaka 1.17) 

The symptoms of satha nayaka have been described thus: 

priyam vyaktipuro 'nyatra 
vipriyam kurute bhrsarn 
nigudham aparadham ca 
satho yam kathito budhaih 

Learned authorities have stated that satha nayaka is a hero who conceals 
his offences. He speaks sweet words in front of his own heroine, while 
remaining covertly attached to another. {Srngara-tilaka 1.18) 

Q^erse %? 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam adbhuta-kesava-keli-rahasyam 
vrndavana-vipine lalitam vitanotu subhani yasasyam 

haririha mugdha-vadhu-nikare... (8) 


May this auspicious, delightful and astounding song of Sri Jayadeva increase the 
good fame of all. This song bestows all virtues. It describes Radha's gaze upon 
the wondrous mystery of the sensual games performed by Krsna as she laments 


in separation from him in the bowers of Vrndavana. It extends the excellence 
emanating from those forest pastimes. 


To conclude, Sri Jayadeva says, "Herein lies the mystery of Kesava's astonishing 
amorous affairs. The wonderful secret is that one Krsna expands himself into as 
many forms as there are gopis. Thereby he enjoys loving pastimes with them all 
at the same time and personally fulfils their cherished desires. 

"This song is enchanting because it adheres exactly to the rigours of rdga and 
tdla. Yet the greatest cause of its appeal lies in the portrayal of Kesava's secret 
arts of love. May this sweet, melodious song confer auspiciousness and increase 
the fame of those who recite and hear it." 

QPerse 48 

^TT: T&3 HJdHlfHcl wft WVt ^f?: *Wfd II XC II 

visvesdm anuranjanena janayann dnandam indwara- 
sreni-sydmala-komalair upanayann angair anangotsavam 

svacchandam vraja-sundaribhir abhitah praty-angam dlingitah 
srngdrah sakhi murtimdn iva madhau mugdho harih kridati 

"O sakhi, Krsna has become the eros personified as he revels in loving pastimes, 
intoxicated by the rasa of romantic springtime encounters. With his soft, dark 
limbs that surpass the beauty of a blue lotus flower, he is inaugurating Cupid's 
great festival. With ever-increasing attachment, he is satisfying the gopis' 
unbridled passion far in excess of their expectations. Nevertheless, the beautiful 
gopis of Vraja, helplessly lost in the rapture of lovemaking, assume the dominant 
male position and freely embrace each and every part of his body." 


Act One 


Radha's friend says, "Sakhi, look!" as she points out the amorous activities of 
Sri Radha's dearest one with the intention of stimulating her ecstatic emotions. 
"The season is spring. What's more, it is also the month of Madhu, and Sri Hari 
is lost in enjoying love-play with all the gopis as if he were srngdra-rasa 

Srngdrah sakhih murtimdn iva - The sakhi reveals Krsna's characteristics as 
he unites with his sensually aroused lovers by portraying him as the embodi- 
ment of erotic euphoria. Purusah pramadd-yuktah srngara iti samjhitah - "A 
man who is united with a highly libidinous woman is called srngara" Krsna 
is satisfying the gopis' coveted ambitions far beyond their expectations and 
intensifying their happiness in a festival of Eros. Sri Hari bestows bliss upon all 
living entities by his ever-increasing divine love. 

The sakhi says that Krsna's elegant limbs are darker and softer than a blue 
lotus. The word blue lotus (indivard) conveys the sense of darkness, softness 
and refreshing coolness; the word sreni of freshness that appears newer at every 
moment; and the word sydmala of handsome tender youthfulness. Krsna is 
observing a festival of transcendental lust with those tender limbs. 

The attractive vraja-gopis are embracing each and every limb of Krsna's body 
spontaneously at their pleasure, without the slightest hesitation. 

Rasa emerges from the combination of two components: the hero's anurdga 
for the heroine and the heroine's anurdga for the hero. The hero may be 
attached to the heroine, but unless the heroine is also attached to the hero, rasa 
will not manifest. 

One might ask, "Here we find only paraspara-anuranjana, the act of 
pleasing each other; so where is rasa?" The stage of rasa begins with the 
integration of vibhdva, anubhdva, sdttvika-bhdva and sahcdri-bhdva. Then it 
increases through the stages of sneha, pranaya, mdna, rdga, anurdga, bhdva 
and mahdbhdva. Consequently, rasa flourishes with the maturity of prema. 
When prema-rasa begins to manifest, the hero and heroine harbour no 
reservations about their activities, the time or the place. Yet union still does not 
reach its pinnacle, despite the absence of inhibitions. The complete union of 
every limb is perfectly accomplished only by mahdbhdva-rasa. 

One might conjecture that Krsna has only partial experience of the cowherd 
damsels. Therefore it is stated here, praty-angam dlingita - Krsna has satisfied 


the gqpzs by embracing each of their limbs, by kissing, by touching and by other 
appropriate activities. Furthermore, one might ask, "How could Krsna have 
embraced all of them?" The answer is that srngara-rasa is one, yet it pervades 
the entire creation. Similarly, Krsna is one and also all-pervading. By virtue of 
this attribute, he is competent to delight the whole universe. 

The current verse includes dipaka alankdra, vaidarbhi riti, sdrdula-vikridita 
chanda, srngara-rasa and vdkyaucitya. The heroine of the song, Radha, is 
utkanthitd ndyikd. When the hero's behaviour is inconsistent, the heroine who 
becomes indifferent to the world in the anxiety of separation is called utkanthitd 

otlHl^d^fod: ftHdHHteul ^T: W ^: II *<* II 

rdsolldsa-bharena vibhrama-bhrtdm dbhlra-vdma-bhruvdm 

abhyarnam parirabhya nirbharam urah premdndhayd rddhayd 

sddhu tvad-vadanam sudhd-mayam iti vydhrtya gita-stuti- 
vydjdd udbhata-cumbitah smita-manohdrl harihpdtu vah 


Radha was blinded by love for Krsna and enchanted to the point of 
bewilderment. In this condition she became utterly shameless. Directly 
before the attractive eyes of the other radiant cowherd maidens, who were 
overwhelmed with love in the rasa-lila, Radha tightly embraced Krsna's chest. 
Singing his praises, "O my sweetheart, how handsome is your lotus face. What 
an incomparable mine of abundant nectar," she engaged him in a delightful kiss. 
On witnessing the intensity of her love, Krsna expressed the rhapsody within 
his heart with a charming chuckle. O Sri Krsna, may you bestow auspiciousness 
upon all. 


Act ©ne 

This is the final verse of Act One. The sakhi is reminding Radha of her pastimes 
with Krsna in the autumn (sdradiyd-rdsd). Krsna was immersed in a festival of 
amorous desires. He stood splendidly amidst the cowherd damsels, who were 
glancing at him from the corners of their lotus eyes. At first Radha was anxious, 
but her friend encouraged the sudden awakening of a tremendous desire. 
Radha's behaviour is generally inhibited by shyness, yet she became shameless 
due to absorption in prema. As if it were a part of the rasa dance, she sang 
Krsna's praises in ambrosial expressions, tightly embraced his chest and began 
to kiss him directly in the presence of all the other gopis. 

When Radha freely exhibited her ecstatic emotions before all the elegant 
young ladies of Vraja, Krsna's face expressed the utmost delight. "The well- 
mannered Radhika is now blinded by love in the elation of the rasa. How 
expert she is." May that captivated Sri Krsna bestow auspiciousness upon all. 

In this verse the ndyikd is pragalbhd and the ndyaka is mugdha. The chanda 
is sdrdula-vikridita. The alankdras include dsih, aprastuta, prasamsd and 

Thus ends the Balabodhinl-prakasa commentary on 
Act One of Sri GIta-govinda, entitled Samoda-dzmodam. 





&arefr66 QKrsna 

Scene Five 

Q^erse J 

[^IM[rtd[H^l^bNm^lic|^H ildHd: I 

W?f?P3t ^TT ^HIujdN 7F: Wk II S II 

viharati vane rddhd sddhdrana-pranaye harau 
vigalita-nijotkarsdd irsyd-vasena gatdnyatah 

kvacid api latd-kunje gunjan-madhu-vrata-mandalt- 
mukhara-sikhare Una dlndpy uvdca rahah sakhim 


hen Radha saw Krsna enjoying affectionate exchanges with all the 
cowherd maidens in the groves of Vrndavana, she became indig- 
nant because he had not acknowledged her eminence. She immedi- 
ately departed for another part of the forest and hid herself inside a shady bower 
that resounded with the drone of bumblebees. Feeling wretched, she began to 
disclose secrets to her intimate female companion. 


Act Two is entitled Aklesa-kesava. The purport is that Bhagavan Sri Krsna, the 
Supreme Divinity and connoisseur of rasa, is eternally free from distress. He 
never has to undergo even the slightest pain. Bhagavan has two uncommon 

(1) Akhila-heya-pratyanikatva - He has no connection with material defects 
such as any type of painful misfortune or calamity. He is pratyanika, the 
formidable nemesis of all defects. In this regard, the author of Yoga-sutra has 


klesa-karma-vipdkdsayair aparamrstah purusa-visesa isvarah 

"A person who has no relationship with defects such as ignorance, false 
egotism, attachment, aversion, fear of death, or reactive work and its conse- 
quences, is called isvara." (Yoga-sutra 1.24) 

(2) Akhila-kalydna-gundkaratva - Sri Krsna is the benefactor of the entire 
creation and a mine of supernatural virtues. Therefore Act Two is entitled Aklesa 
(stress-free) Kesava. 

Sri Radha is prone to temperamental behaviour. When the sakhl informed her 
of Krsna's whereabouts, she entered his great festival of Cupid. When she saw 
him expressing equal affection to all the cowherd maidens, she proudly thought, 
"I am his best lover. I am his constant companion. But today he is not showing 
partiality to me." So she departed in a huff. Coming across a dense grove, she 
went inside and sat down in hiding. Even there she could not find peace because 
she was seething with jealousy. A group of bumblebees were humming around 
the flowers above this grove of blossoming vines. At that time, when Radha felt 
the pain of her own jealous anger, she began to share secrets with her companion 
that should not be disclosed to anyone. 

The chanda of this verse is harini, which is defined as rasa-yuga hayaih 
n-sau m-rau s-lau go yadd harini. The heroine is praudhd ndyikd. The literary 
ornaments include anuprdsa alankdra. Rasavad alankdra is present due to 
excessive rati-bhdva. The word api strongly emphasizes that Radha was in such 
a condition that she was unable to speak. Furthermore, she never discloses 
secrets. Thus the word api, meaning "nevertheless", conveys the sense of utter 

The present verse is the colophon (puspikd) of the fifth song, which begins 
proper from the next verse. 



Q&0HC) S 

The musical mode is gurjari raga and the rhythm is yati tola. 

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-^^SSS 1 


rase harim iha vihita-vildsam 

smarati mano mama krta-parihdsam (refrain) (1) 


"Sakhi, how amazing it is that in this festival of rasa, Sri Krsna has abandoned 
me and now, with cheerful curiosity, he is relishing love in the company of other 
amorous young women. Even so, I still continue to remember him within the 
core of my heart. He fills the flute in his lotus hands with a transformation of the 
nectar of his lips by blowing and producing a sweet expressive melody. Wishful 
glances from the corners of his eyes make his jewelled head-dress quiver and 
his earrings dangle near his cheeks. I repeatedly remember his attractive dark 
complexion, his laughter and his humorous behaviour." 


Radha's friend said, "Dear Radhika, Krsna has neglected you, so why do you love 
him so much that you are losing your composure?" 

Thus scolded by her friend, Radha spoke in a mood of extreme self- 
abasement. u Sakhi, your words are true. Sri Krsna has abandoned me. Infatuated 
by other attractive lovers, he is merrily dallying with them, so my expressions 
of love for him are certainly all in vain. But what am I to do? His comical antics 
repeatedly appear in my heart. Now I recall his playful seduction. 

"O sakhi, this is the very pastime forest where we previously experienced the 
joy of amorous love together. I am so attached that I cannot forsake him. I always 
remember his virtues. My heart cannot even imagine the slightest fault in him. 
I am satisfied with whatever he does. 

"When Syamasundara laughs and jokes with the gopis of Vraja on the night 
of the rdsa-lild, he fills the flute in his lotus hands with a transformation of the 


A>ct Tjwo 

nectar of his lips..." Thus Radhika begins her song of separation - sancarad- 

The etymology of this phrase is sancarantyd adhara-sudhayd madhuro 
dhvani yatra tad yathd sydd tathd mukharitd mohini variisi yena tarn. 

"The enchanting influence of his flute is famous. Extracted from the nectar 
of his lips, the sweet sound of his flute makes my mind unsteady and then sud- 
denly robs me of my patience. As soon as I remember the beauty of his limbs, 
the restless ornament upon his crest, his swinging earrings, and especially the 
way he embraces and kisses the youthful gopts, I immediately lose my sense of 
propriety. O sakhi, what am I to do?" 

O^erse 3 


rase harim iha vihita-vildsam... (2) 


"Memories of Sri Krsna are coming to me most vividly. His hair is adorned with 
a charming peacock feather, which is beautified by its natural half-moon-shaped 
design. His lustre resembles a mass of fresh rainclouds, coloured by an abun- 
dance of brilliant rainbows." 


The circular pattern on the end of a peacock feather is called candraka. It also 
bestows joy like the moon (candrama). 

"Sri Krsna's hair is encircled by such sweet peacock feathers and his dark hue 
gives the impression of a fresh cloud decorated by many rainbows. The memory 
of his lovely, radiant figure comes to mind again and again." 


bandhujiva-madhuradhara-pallavam ullasita-smita-sobham 

rase harim iha vihita-vildsarh... (3) 


"He lowers his face with the desire to kiss the faces of the gopis in the festival of 
Cupid. His tender lips are an enchanting soft reddish colour like the bud of a scarlet 
mallow flower. The unprecedented lustre of his mild smile spreads across his 
handsome face. Memories of that very Sri Krsna are coming to me most vividly." 


"Memories of Sri Krsna, who is greedy to kiss the faces of the newly married 
gopis, are forcefully occupying my mind. When he is immersed in secret love- 
play in the forest bowers, his eagerness to kiss the faces of the gopis increases 
incessantly. The memory of Sri Krsna's red lips, the colour of scarlet mallow 
flowers (bandhukd), is awakening spontaneously within my mind. Sakhi, when 
he smiles, his handsomeness increases even more." 

Q^erse S 

kara-caranorasi mani-gana-bhusana-kirana-vibhinna-tamisram 

rase harim iha vihita-vilasam... (4) 


"I am helplessly remembering Sri Krsna, whose entire body thrills with horri- 
pilation when he deeply embraces thousands upon thousands of youthful 
gopis with his arms as tender as flower petals. He illuminates all directions with 
sparkling beams emanating from the jewelled ornaments on his hands, feet and 


A>ct Tjwo 


"Now I am remembering those arms of Syamasundara, as soft as newly sprouted 
leaves. They are covered with severe horripilation as they encircle thousands of 
gopts and tightly embrace them. All darkness is dispelled by the rays of beauty 
emanating from the ornaments on his hands, feet and chest." 


rase harim iha vihita-vildsam... (5) 

"His forehead bears a captivating tilaka. Its indescribable lustre defeats the 
immense beauty of a restless moon amidst a multitude of fresh rainclouds. I simply 
go on remembering how cruel-hearted Krsna is always fond of inflicting pain 
upon the invaluably precious nipples of the most qualified young ladies' large 
breasts with his own chest, which is as broad and solid as a door." 

"The beauty of the restless moon amidst fresh rainclouds is a spectacle to behold. 
The dark screen of Krsna's broad forehead is like a fresh raincloud and thereupon 
his white sandalwood paste tilaka rebukes the pleasing effect of the moon's 
brilliant rays. I vividly remember how Krsna mercilessly grinds his broad chest 
against the tender breasts of young ladies without respite at the time of their 
amorous union." 


manimaya-makara-manohara-kundala-mandita-gandam uddram 
ptta-vasanam anugata-muni-manuja-surdsura-vara-parivdram 

rase harim iha vihita-vildsam... (6) 

"The beauty of his cheeks is enhanced by his enchanting, jewelled, makara- 
shaped earrings. He accepts the role of a submissive hero (daksina ndyakd) and 
generously fulfils the hearts' desires of his lovers. Attired in a yellow garment, 
Krsna has diffused his sweetness and saturated the best of his followers, includ- 
ing demigods, demons, sages and humans, in prema-rasa. Such memories of 
Krsna are forcefully coming to me of their own accord." 


"Krsna's ears are adorned with dangling earrings that enhance the beauty of his 
cheeks. His earrings are shaped like makara, a sea-creature who is considered 
to be the emblem of Kamadeva, the god of lust. He plays in a submissive mood 
and he dresses in yellow. His best followers include Narada amongst the sages, 
Bhisma amongst the humans, Prahlada amongst the dynasty of demons and 
Indra amongst the demigods. I cannot forget him." 

Q^erse 8 

visada-kadamba-tale militant kali-kalusa-bhayam samayantam 
mdm api kim api tarangad-ananga-drsd manasd ramayantam 

rase harim iha vihita-vildsam... (7) 


"My heart becomes increasingly agitated by remembering Sri Krsna. After arriv- 
ing beneath a broad kadamba tree in full blossom, he waits for me while look- 
ing around in anticipation. He completely dispels his own fear of separation by 


A>ct Tjwo 

consoling me with many clever and flattering words of encouragement. His eyes 
restless from the powerful waves of desire and his mind full of longing, he rev- 
els in loving pastimes with me in my heart of hearts." 


Sri Radha says, "O sakhi, he is still eagerly waiting for me in the appointed meet- 
ing place beneath an expansive kadamba tree. Afraid that I may leave him during 
our lovers' quarrel, he is still placating me with ingenious words of flattery. He 
still delights me with his rasa-laden glances and deeply attached heart." 

Mam api- "He still makes me happy." The implication is, "The activities of my 
beloved Krsna are so enthralling that even long after seeing them, I still feel the 
utmost rapture." 

QPerse 9 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam ati-sundara-mohana-madhuripu-rupam 
hari-carana-smaranam prati samprati punyavatdm anurupam 

rase harim iha vihita-vildsam... (8) 


Sri Jayadeva has presented this poem for those fortunate persons devoted to the 
service of Bhagavan. It describes the spell-binding beauty of Krsna's form. It is 
the very embodiment of remembrance of Sri Hari's lotus feet and it should be 
relished after taking complete shelter of the primary rasa. 


Concluding the fifth song, Sri Jayadeva states that he has composed it to 
awaken a particular type of remembrance of Krsna's lotus feet in the hearts of 
the fortunate devotees who have attained transcendental love. Here the word 
carana refers to pastimes such as the rdsa-ltld, the remembrance of which is 
beneficial for devotees even today. The rdsa-ltld is exceptionally endearing. 


Q&rf (^Qjita-tjavinda 

Therefore this song comprises the method of remembering Krsna's lotus feet 
that Radha can never forsake. 

This fifth song, entitled Madhuripu-ratna-kanthikd, is composed in laya 
chanda. Laya chanda is characterized thus, munir yaganair layam dmananti. 

Q^erse JO 

wfa ^ cfTTT ^TFT ^TtfrT ^fa %*T ll^o || 

ganayati guna-grdmam bhrdmam bhramdd api nehate 
vahati caparttosam dosam vimuncati duratah 

yuvatisu valat-trsne krsne vihdrini mam vind 

punar api mano vdmam kdmam karoti karomi kim 


"Krsna has neglected you. So why are you increasingly vexed by attachment for 
him?" Rebuked in this way by her intimate companion, Radha replied, "My dear 
friend, Krsna has abandoned me and now he is enjoying pastimes of ever-fresh 
love with many other young ladies. I know that it is futile to express my love for 
him. Still, what am I to do? My attachment for him is so powerful that it will not 
go away under any circumstances. I just go on enumerating his wonderful quali- 
ties. When I realize my eminence, I become maddened with ecstasy. I cannot be 
angry with him, even by mistake; and I feel satisfied when I overlook his faults. 
I ardently long for him at every moment. Sakhi, I cannot forget him. What am I 
to do?" 


Setting the scene for the sixth song, Radha begins an account of her private affairs 
by saying, "Sakhi, my heart is submissive to Krsna, in spite of his philandering 


A>ct Tjwo 

with other women. Though he no longer wants me, I continue to remember his 
manifold virtues and I long for his association." 

Bhrdmam bhramdd api nehate - Here the word bhrama means anger. "My 
heart refuses to be angry with him, even unintentionally. I have no desire to see 
faults in him, such as his attachment for other heroines or his indifference to me. 
I remain completely satisfied with him. What am I to do?" 

In this verse Sri Radha is portrayed as the utkanthita ndyikd who is charac- 
terized thus: 

utkd bhavati sd yasyd 

vdsake ndgatah priyah 
tasydndgamane heturh 

cintayantydkuld yathd 

A heroine who anxiously frets over the reason why her beloved has not 
come to her bedside is called utkanthita. 

This verse includes harini chanda, kriyaucitya, yamaka sabda alankdra 
and two artha alankdms, namely samsaya and dipaka. The present verse is the 
puspikd of the sixth song. 



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O^erse 11 

nibhrta-nikunja-grham gataya nisi rahasi niliya vasantam 
cakita-vilokita-sakala-disd rati-rabhasa-bharena hasantam 

sakhi he kesi-mathanam uddram 
ramaya mayd saha madana-manoratha- 

bhdvitayd sa-vikdram (refrain) (1) 


"O sakhi, Kesi-mathana Krsna is never lacking in generosity when it comes to 
relieving the burning heat of Kamadeva. What's more, his mind is also bewil- 
dered by attachment for me. My anxiety is mounting incessantly; how will my 
desire to unite with him be fulfilled? Arrange for our meeting immediately. 

"Once, he went to a secluded forest bower at night in accordance with the 
plan we had discreetly arranged by hints and signals. In a mischievous mood, he 
concealed himself in the dense foliage of the forest just to observe my eagerness 
to meet him and my agony in his absence. I began to look around with tired, 
fearful eyes, immersed in anxiety and thinking 'Oh, when will he come?' Then 
he suddenly delighted me with the nectar of his amorous laughter. 

"Krsna is munificent and he is the killer of the KesI demon. My yearning for 
passionate love-play has reached the utmost limit and I am prepared to perform 
all the activities of union. So my dear friend, arrange for Sri Krsna to fulfil his 
ambitions with me at once." 


Burning in a fever of transcendental lust, Radha reveals her desire to meet Krsna. 
She begins by disclosing the details of how she had pleased him by her love-play 
on a previous occasion. This pastime is full of the most profound mysteries. 

Sakhi! ramaya kesi-mathanam uddram mayd saha - "Sakhi, arrange for me 
to delight in love with Kesi-nisudana." Here Radha expresses a desire for her 
own happiness. The definition of pure devotion prohibits self-interest, so why 
does she have such a desire? The cowherd maidens have renounced everything 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


to love Krsna. They are devoid of even the slightest trace of self-centred desire. 
Nevertheless, if the intense hankering of the hero and heroine is not mutual, 
prema will not fully manifest. The heroine must show her anuraga to awaken the 
desire for love in the heart of the hero. This is the nature of prema. 

The defect of incompatibility (rasdbhdsa) arises if prema is one-sided. It is 

anurdgo 'nuraktdydm 
rasdvaha iti sthitih 
abhdve tv anurdgasya 

rasdbhdsam jagur budhdh 

It is the opinion of learned authorities that rasa is nourished by a woman's 
eagerness for love, whereas rasdbhdsa occurs in the absence of such 

Therefore, Radha's keen desire for Krsna acts to increase rasa. 

"Sakhi, the very first time Krsna enjoyed with me, he realized the bliss of 
making love. Now that we are apart, I constantly remember the happiness of 
our amorous play. The erotic sentiment (tnadana-rasd) makes me distraught 
with impatience. Separation from Krsna has become intolerable. Sakhi, arrange 
my union with him at once!" 

In this way the poet has portrayed Radha's anuraga for Krsna and Krsna's 
anuraga for Radha. If an author introduces the subject of union before depicting 
mutual anuraga, the defect of rasdbhdsa occurs. 

Sa-vikdram - Sri Radha says, "I have experienced the transformations of 
kdma." When a woman's lust is aroused, she devises an excuse to show her 
navel, breasts and other parts of her body. As stated in the commentary entitled 
Rasika-sarvasva : 

ndbhi mula kucodara prakatanavydjena yad yositdm 

sdkdm ksam muhur-tksanam skhalitatd nivinibandhasya ca 

kesa-bhramsana samyamau cakamitur mitrddi sandarsanaih 
saubhdgyddi guna prasasti kathanaih tat sdnurdgengikatam 


A>ct Tjwo 

When a woman is aroused, her gestures are full of anuraga. For example, 
she creates an opportunity to show her navel, breasts and abdomen; she 
repeatedly glances towards her beloved with desire in her eyes; her under- 
garments begin to loosen; the arrangement of her hair slips and she tries to 
fix it; she carefully observes all the activities of her beloved's friends and she 
praises his good fortune and virtues along with them. 

"O sakhi, I am guilty of all these love-laden gestures. Arrange my meeting 
with Sri Krsna at once." 

The phrase madana-manoratha-bhavitaya means, "Desires born from the 
kdma in the core of my heart are now fully mature." 

cestd bhavati punndryo 

sambhogo vipralambhas ca 

sa srngdro dvidhd matah 

When a man and a woman who are intensely attached to each other per- 
form romantic activities to stimulate each other's desires for union, the 
amorous mood is of two types, namely meeting (sambhogd) and separation 

"Just as I, the separated lover, long for Krsna, he also longs for me. O sakhi, 
take me to him at once!" In this instance, srngdra-rasa is complete. 

Sri Radha says, "When I arrived at the secluded kunja in the dead of night, 
not seeing Syamasundara, I began to look around in great anxiety. At that time, 
he was observing my eagerness from his hiding place in a dense grove. 

"When I began to search for him with fearful eyes, he illuminated all direc- 
tions with merriment by suddenly appearing right in front of me and laughing 
heartily out of enthusiasm for lovemaking. O sakhi, take me to him at once!" 


Q^erse 12 

prathama-samdgama-lajjitayd patu-cdtu-satair anukulam 
mrdu-madhura-smita-bhdsitayd sithili-krta-jaghana-dukulam 

sakhi he kesi-mathanam uddram... (2) 


"Seeing me so naive and gullible due to the natural embarrassment that occurs 
during one's first amorous encounter, he employed a succession of courteous 
words and humble entreaties to abate my shyness. Enchanted by his flattering 
words, I smiled softly and sweetly and began to converse with him. Just then that 
cunning Krsna suddenly removed the cloth from my hips. O sakhi, immediately 
arrange for me to meet with him!" 


Sri Radha tells her friend, "This was not my first intimate meeting with Krsna. 
Nevertheless, I feigned the shyness of a heroine on the occasion of her first 
union. Noting my temperament, Krsna spoke words of flattery just to make 
me agreeable to his intentions. Delighted by his sweet-talk, I smiled sweetly in 
return and politely conversed with him. As soon as he saw that I was favourably 
disposed to him, he suddenly opened my lower cloth. 

"I want to be united in amorous love with Krsna. O sakhi, arrange for me to 
meet with him at once!" 

The phrase prathama-samdgama - first union - implies that the sublime 
mellow of coition is always experienced in newer and newer ways. 

Q^erse 13 

kisalaya-sayana-nivesitayd ciram urasi mamaiva saydnam 
krta-parirambhana-cumbanayd parirabhya krtddhara-pdnam 

sakhi he kesi-mathanam uddram... (3) 


A>ct Tjwo 


"He made me lie down upon a charming bed of soft, fresh flowers and then, with 
great pleasure, he laid so radiantly upon my heart. I kissed him and embraced 
him deeply. Moreover, he embraced me and repeatedly drank the nectar of my 
lips under the powerful influence of ananga-rasa. O sakhi, he is dearer to me 
than my very life. Take me to meet with him at once." 


"Sakhi, in the appointed place, Krsna made me lie down upon a bed made of 
soft flowers. After that he enjoyed lovemaking upon my bosom for a long time. 
I would embrace and kiss him and he would also embrace me and drink the 
nectar of my lips at the same time. O sakhi, arrange for me to meet with Sri Krsna 
at once." 

Krta-parirambhana - The author of Rasa-manjart comments that this posi- 
tion is called ksira-nira alingana on the basis of evidence from Pancasdyaka. 
The author of Rasika-priyd considers this type of embrace to be tila-tandula 
alingana and gives evidence from his Koka-sdstra. 

O^erse 1% 

srama-jala-sakala-kalevarayd vara-madana-maddd ati-lolam 

sakhi he kesl-mathanam uddrarh... (4) 

"From the sudden, unexpected surge of rapture within the pleasure of passionate 
love with him, my eyes became tired and closed. Krsna's cheeks assumed an 
extraordinary charm and loveliness from the joy of this love-play Although he 
was already intoxicated by the mellows of amorous union, seeing my attractive 
body exhausted and dripping with perspiration, he became even more agitated 
by the desire to taste ananga-rasa. O sakhi, quickly arrange for me to meet with 
Sri Krsna!" 



"Sakhi, my body became tired and my eyes closed from the exhaustion that 
follows in the wake of sexual pleasure. My whole body was wet with drops of 
perspiration indicative of my lusty thoughts. Seeing me in that condition, the 
intense passion in Krsna's heart caused his jubilation to escalate, which in turn 
creating an enthralling lustre on his cheeks. He was immersed in the immensely 
powerful bliss of erotic love. By beholding my vine-like body, he suddenly 
became agitated. O sakhi, arrange for me to meet with him!" 

Profuse perspiration on Sri Radha's body from the ecstasy of lovemaking 
reveals the climax of her previously experienced delight. 

Q^erse IS 

slatha-kusumdkula-kuntalayd nakha-likhita-ghana-stana-bhdram 

sakhi he kesl-mathanam uddrarh... (5) 


"Sri Krsna is thoroughly conversant with the confidential theories found in 
authentic manuals on the techniques of lovemaking (rati-sdstrd) and he also 
practises their rites. At the time of amorous union with Krsna, I cried out like a 
cuckoo. My braid opened and the arrangement of flower blossoms slipped and 
fell from my hair. I don't know what he was writing on my large, round breasts 
with the scratching of his fingernails. O sakhi, arrange for me to meet with my 
dearmost Sri Krsna at once!" 


Radha is describing her experience of union with Krsna according to the princi- 
ples of tantra. At the time of making love, she used to murmur like a cuckoo. 

The author of Rasika-sarvasva has stated, kalarava sabdah pdrdvata 
parydyah - "When a heroine is being kissed and stimulated in various ways by 
her lover, her breathing becomes erratic and she makes a sound similar to the 


A>ct Tjwo 

cooing of birds like the cuckoo or pigeon, thus expressing the sudden thrill of 
pleasurable sensations." 

"Krsna used to seize me by the hair, kiss me and drink the nectar of my lips. 
At the height of our love-games, he used to make nail-marks on my large, firm 
breasts. Sakhi, arrange for me to meet with him at once!" 

Q^erse 16 

mukhara-visrnkhala-mekhalayd sa-kaca-graha-cumbana-ddnam 

sakhi he kesi-mathanam uddrarh... (6) 


"As we enjoyed amorous play, the jewel-studded ankle-bells on my feet rang 
out with the sound 'runjhurt. Although my waist-bells were very talkative, they 
gradually came undone. Unite me at once with that Sri Krsna who catches me by 
the hair, repeatedly kisses my face and engages in sensual games to the fullest 

"When Sri Krsna performed such endearing love-play, the jewelled ankle-bells 
on my feet would jingle. At first the sash of bells around my waist used to chime, 
but later it would break and fall silent. He used to catch my hair and kiss me. 
O sakhi, unite me with him at once." 


rati-sukha-samaya-rasdlasayd dara-mukulita-nayana-sarojam 
nihsaha-nipatita-tanu-latayd madhusudanam udita-manojam 5 

sakhi he kesl-mathanam udararh... (7) 


"While enjoying with him, I gradually became exhausted from the experience 
of intense sexual pleasure. All my limbs became languid and my vine-like body 
was incapacitated by the vigorous exertion of making love. I finally fell lifeless 
and inert. Krsna's slightly open lotus eyes were soaked in the mellows of Cupid 
and incomparable erotic transformations played incessantly within his mind. 
O sakhi, unite me with my dearest Sri Krsna at once." 


After being submerged in the experience of amorous pleasure, Radha became 
weary and Krsna half-closed his lotus eyes. A bumblebee generally sits on all the 
flowers one by one and drinks their nectar, but when he sees the excellence of 
the lotus flower, he becomes deeply attached to it and cannot leave. He becomes 
madly intoxicated by drinking its nectar and then takes rest therein. Similarly, 

5 alasd means manthard. It is stated — rati-sukha-samaye dvayor eka-kdlam retah kana 
ksarana samaye yo rasah tad ekdgri bhdvas tena alasd manthard. 
dara-mukulite means "slightly closed". 
nihsahd means asamarthah, "incapable". 
udita-manojam means "fully risen lust". 

nipatita-tanu-latd meaning "fallen vine-like body" indicates viparita-rati, the lovers' role 
reversal in which the heroine assumes an active, dominant position above the hero. 
asamarthd - cyuti kdlottardvasthd ity arthah 
Bharata Muni has stated: 

ange svedah slathatvam ca 

kesa-vastrddi samvrtti 
jdte cyuti sukhe ndryd 
virdmecchd ca gamyate 


A>ct Tjwo 

although Madhusudana Sri Krsna drinks the nectar of all the flower-like gopis, 
impelled by his deep attachment for the lotus-like Radha, he abandons them all. 
She becomes his resting place because he can experience the full ecstasy of all 
amorous pleasures only with her. Moreover, when Radha experiences Krsna's 
dexterity in passionate love, her attachment for him also intensifies. 

Today, Sri Radha enjoyed loving pastimes with Sri Hari within her mind. By 
remembering her previous experiences, she became overwhelmed with anxiety 
and said to her friend, "O sakhi, arrange for me to meet with Sri Krsna at once!" 

QPerse 78 

srt-jayadeva-bhanitam idam atisaya-madhuripu-nidhuvana-sllam 
sukham utkanthita-gopa-vadhu-kathitam vitanotu sa-lllam 

sakhi he kesl-mathanam uddrarh... (8) 


This erotic narration composed by Sri Jayadeva portrays Sri Krsna's excessive 
amorous passion as described by the anxious and impatient heroine in the tor- 
ment of her separation. May it increase the auspiciousness of all devotees who 
recite and hear it. 


In conclusion, Sri Jayadeva says, "Although I have presented this song, the details 
were revealed by Radha to her intimate friend. Therefore the narrator of this 
song is actually Sri Radha. She has elaborately described Krsna's prowess in 

When memories of her pastimes with Krsna awakened, Radha's mind became 
unsteady. In this state, she revealed the content of her heart to her companion for 
the sake of meeting with Syamasundara. 

Sri Radha is referred to as nidhuvana-ndgari because she is also expert in 
sensuality. May this description of her passionate games and loving thirst for 
Sri Krsna bestow auspiciousness upon all. 


This sixth song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Aklesa-kesava-kunjara-tilaka. 
The whole song is permeated with vipralambha-srngdra-rasa. The metre is laya 

'll^K fH4J*<^|U|<gd M^lPH ^|[h xT II ^ II 

hasta-srasta-vildsa-vamsam anrju-bhru-vallimad-ballavi- 
vrndotsdri-drganta-viksitam ati-svedardra-ganda-sthalam 

mam udvtksya vilajjita-smita-sudhd-mugdhdnanam kdnane 
govindam vraja-sundari-gana-vrtam pasydmi hrsydmi ca 

"O sakhi, Sri Krsna was romancing with the cowherd girls, whose arched eye- 
brows resemble attractive creepers, and casting his glance upon their charming 
limbs. Though he was surrounded by a throng of beautiful cowherd damsels, he 
made them retreat to a distant place by a motion of his eyes. As soon as Krsna 
saw me, he was struck with wonder. His mind became obsessed with amorous 
desires, causing his flute to fall from his delicate hands and his forehead to 
become moist with perspiration. His face blossomed with the nectar of a bashful 
smile. I feel an indescribable bliss on seeing his reaction." 


There are three types of realization at the time of separation: remembrance 
(smarand), internal vision (sphurtt) and direct audience (avirbhdva). Sri Radha 
first experienced smarana. When her mood intensified to the state of sudtpta- 
mahdbhdva, pastimes manifested automatically within her heart. Now her 
realization is sdksdt anubhava, a direct experience. 


A>ct Tjwo 

She tells her friend, "Sakhi, look! I am laughing and I feel overjoyed to see 
Govinda graciously present in this forest of Vraja along with the beautiful 

The sakhi asked, "Hey bewildered one! Why are you in bliss when Krsna has 
abandoned you to enjoy with other gopis?" 

Radha replied, "He will become so embarrassed when he notices that I 
am there. His own guilty conscience will make him sweat profusely and his 
cheeks will become wet with perspiration. When he sees my ecstatic symptoms 
(sattvika-bhdva), ecstatic symptoms will also erupt on his limbs. His flute 
will slip from his hands in shame. The cowherd girls of Vraja have attractive 
creeper-like eyebrows. But he will repel them from his intimate proximity 
with a gesture of his eyebrows. Then his face will become utterly enchanting, 
enhanced by his mild smile. When I behold my dearmost beloved in this way, I 
will certainly feel the utmost bliss. Sakhil When, oh when will I meet my darling 
Sri Krsna in this way?" 

This verse includes sdrdula-vikridita chanda, dipaka and latdnuprdsa 
alankdras, vipralambha-srngdra-rasa and pdncdli riti. The hero is daksina 




O^erse 20 

TnjfrT^TRf irfe ftiyRuM W3?fa II ^o || 

vikdsah kdsdropavana-pavano pi vyathayati 

api bhrdmyad-bhrngt-ranita-ramantyd na mukula- 
prasutis cutdndm sakhi sikhariniyarh sukhayati 


"Sakhi, now there is no way that my mind can be satisfied in separation from 
Krsna. Look! The radiant beauty of this slightly blossomed new asoka vine is like 
a spear piercing my eyes. The breeze wafting from the groves on the shore of this 
lake also inflicts pain upon every limb of my body. Even the beautiful drone of 
the bumblebees as they wander in all directions is not pleasing to me. The mango 
trees are all the more captivating with their humming bumblebees, yet the fresh 
blossoms sprouting from their branch-tips also do not make me happy." 

Describing excitants (vibhdvas) of love in separation, Radha tells her intimate 
friend, "It has become difficult to look at the asoka trees during this spring sea- 
son. The new buds inflame the fire of separation. The breeze moving through 
the lakeside groves causes asoka-latds to bloom in tiny clusters. This is also tor- 

The word duraloka is derived thus, duhkhena dloka avalokanam yasyd 'sau. 

"Buds are sprouting on the branch-tips of the mango trees and the humming 
bees are hovering around them. These buds made me happy when I met with 
Sri Krsna, but now they make me sad." 


A>ct Tjwo 

The phrase bhrdmyad-bhrngt, "wandering bees", indicates that Sri Radha is 
pointing to the bumblebees, thereby revealing that she has no desire for any male 
person other than Krsna. He is the only desirable male in her eyes. 

This verse includes samuccaya and anuprdsa alankdms, kriyaucitya and 
vipralambha-srngdra-rasa. The riti is mdgadhi and gaudiyd. Appropriately the 
metre is sikharini chanda. 

O^erse 2 J 
mImIhj f^nft farter *Tf*mFFTf%? f^RR- 

^RT^R%t ^^ cr : |^t ^: %?R: II ^ II 

sdkuta-smitam dkuldkula-galad-dhammillam ulldsita- 

bhru-valltkam altka-darsita-bhujd-muldrddha-drsta-stanam 

goptndm nibhrtam niriksya gamitdkdnksas ciram cintayan 

antar mugdha-manoharam haratu vah klesarh navah kesavah 


The gopis' smiles conveyed their intentions so clearly that even a naive person 
would be attracted. Their braids loosened as the pores of their skin thrilled 
with intense kdma. Krsna gazed at their breasts as they showed them off by 
raising their arms. Yet such gestures were to no avail. Krsna reflected deeply for 
a long time, gradually destroying his last aspirations for the company of the gopis. 
Now he is exhilarated exclusively by Radha's emotions and his astonishment 
increases at every new moment. May that youthful Kesava destroy the sufferings 
of you all. 

The great poet, Sri Jayadeva, bestows a benediction upon all devotees in this, the 
final verse of Act Two. "Sri Krsna is extremely discerning. He carefully deliber- 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


ated upon four gestures made by various gopls. Even a half-wit could decipher 
the common motive - seduction." 

(1) Sakuta-smitam - Although the gopls' smiling is natural, it also conveys 
intentions. Their smiles were obviously amorous desire in disguise. It is only 
natural for an impassioned woman to extend seductive gestures when she 
sees a young man. 

(2) Akuldkula-galad-dhammilam - The gopts' braids were loosened by bodily 
transformations such as horripilation due to intense lust. 

(3) Their eyes became restless with amorous desire on seeing Krsna. 

(4) Although there was no reason to expose their armpits or raise their hands, 
they would use excuses such as artificially yawning as opportunities to show 
Krsna their uplifted breasts. 

Sri Krsna is highly discerning. He deliberated on these activities within his 
heart and decided that they were all in vain because no one can ever be com- 
pared with Radha. May Sri Kesava, who is praised in this way by his devoted 
servants, dispel the sorrows of all his devotees. 

This verse includes samuccaya, dsih and parikara alankdras. The chanda is 

Thus ends the Balabodhinl-prakasa commentary on 
Act Two of Sri Glta-govinda, entitled Aklesa-kesava. 



A,ct r Uhree 

— mugdha-madhusudanah — 

QMadhu's Qblaper O&ewildered 

Scene Seven 

Q^erse J 


kamsarir api samsdra- 

rddhdm ddhdya hrdaye 

tatydja vraja-sundarih 


s Krsna, the enemy of Karhsa, remembered the intimate love 
expressed previously by Radha, he realized that it was the very 
essence of the highest devotion. His heart was bound by the chain 
of worldly desire, embodied in the form of Radha. Therefore, considering the 
love of the other voluptuous maidens of Vraja to be insignificant, he abandoned 
them all. 


Acts One and Two describe the excellence of Radha and Madhava, concluding 
with a vivid portrayal of Radha's loving thirst and eagerness for Krsna. Now, 
in the beginning of Act Three, the author demonstrates Sri Krsna's thirst and 
eagerness for Radha. 

Memories of the autumnal dance (saradlya-rasa-lild) suddenly awakened 
in Krsna's heart. He remembered how he had left the other gopis in the arena 
of the rasa dance and had met alone with Sri Radha. He remembered how he 
had nourished her affection by arranging and decorating her hair. Now in the 
absence of Radha, the anguish of separation awakened in his heart. Therefore 
he abandoned the company of the other attractive gopls of Vraja. 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


Kamsari- Sri Krsna is the enemy of the evil king, Karhsa. Alternatively, kam 
sukham sdrayati vistdrayati kamsdrih - "He who expands one's happiness, 
namely Bhagavan Sri Krsna, is called Kamsari." 

Samsdra-vdsand-bandha-srnkhaldm - When the word samsdra is interpreted 
as a compound of samyak (complete) and sdra (essence), then it refers to the 
delightful and endearing madhura-rasa. Therefore, the tendency to remain 
always preoccupied with madhura-rasa is called samsdra-vdsand. Radha is the 
binding fetter (srnkhala) in the rasa dance because she keeps Krsna under her 

When a man of fine discrimination ascertains the identity of the most 
essential substance by comparison with the alternatives, he naturally abandons 
everything else to zealously pursue his desired object. Then that superlative 
object becomes his exclusive shelter. Similarly, Sri Krsna has directly abandoned 
all the other gopis and accepted Radha as his exclusive shelter. 

Vraja-sundarth - The plural declension indicates that Krsna has forsaken 
many elegant young ladies in the anguish of separation from Radha. This reveals 
his excessive anurdga for her. 

The metre of this verse is anustubh. 

HH3-4luiriU|Rd9lHM<H: I 
frTFpTFT: IT *frt^Hp*Hl- 

ddM*^ GlNflK *TTSra-: II 9 II 

itas tatas tarn anusrtya radhikdm 


krtdnutdpah sa kalinda-nandini- 

tatdnta-kunje visasdda mddhavah 


<Act Tjhree 


As the arrows of Kamadeva tore him apart, Sri Krsna condemned himself, 
"Alas! Why did I neglect Sri Radha? How will I meet her again?" He searched 
extensively to find her, but without success. Finally, in despair, he entered a 
secluded grove on the Yamuna riverside and began to repent. 


Krsna's realizations are being described. He feels the same way that Radha was 
feeling in separation from him. Although all the beautiful gopis were willing, he 
was indifferent to their service. The fact that his sweetheart was actually present 
somewhere nearby made him all the more despondent. He thought, "Today I 
could not properly respect Sri Radha, so she must have gone to a bower on the 
Yamuna riverside." He began to look in one grove after another. After searching 
extensively, hopelessness oppressed him to the point of giving up. "If only I had 
consoled Radha with humble words, she would not have left." 

In this way Krsna sank to the depths of despair, stricken by the arrows of 
Cupid and burning in the fire of guilt. 

Mddhavah - ma (Laksmi) + dhava (pati) = Laksmipati, the husband of the 
goddess of fortune. This name of Krsna has a specific significance in this 
context: ma (Radha) + dhava (priyatama) = Madhava, who is dearer to Radha 
than her life's breath, and whose anxiety in separation from her is the emblem 
of her immense fortune. 

The metre of this verse, vamsasthavila chanda, is defined thus: vadanti 
vamsasthavilam ja-tau ja-rau. 




g«V ^Ki' 









The musical mode is gurjarl rdga; the rhythm, yati tola. 
TTfasr -clfrtdl fatflcHI ^# e^fd^H I 

% *Ruj(d 1% clfeujfd ^TT fa? l^^ui I 

f% g^T *F^T f% Wf ^ftfg#T "^IT ll^f^fTo || * || 

^lIumcyfM^qR ^Hdlcboi W&*t HgRgfeo II ^ II 


rTWF ffc fltf dwfd$i *J5T <M<Hlfa I 

f% cn^pmfa rnfaF f% f?iT te^Tfa u^fr^fro n ^ 11 
r^r 3fer ^ T^nftr ^ ^t ^hh^i(m u*fe*Ro ii V9 ii 

3% ?f^f? ^#4 *T*T *T^T«fc ^Ttfa lllftlfTo || <$ || 

gf&Trt vj^c^H ^ft^ Uduld I 
Rh^I^pd'HHsJ'Hi-'Mcl^^un^Mu'id H^f^fto ||^o II 

i^^^— ; 



. ■-■'- ' .■■ 

<Act Tjhree 

O^erse 3 

mam iyam calitd vilokya vrtam vadhu-nicayena 
sdparddhatayd maydpi na vdritdti-bhayena 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd gatd sd kupiteva (refrain) (1) 


"When Radha saw me surrounded by cowherd damsels, she became indignant 
and departed. I thought, 'I have committed an offence', so I became fearful and 
could not muster the courage to stop her from leaving. Alas! She left in a huff 
because I had disrespected her." 


Sri Krsna expresses his deep disappointment by the exclamation hari! hari! 

"Alas! What a terrible calamity. On seeing me surrounded by a throng 
of elegant gopis, Radha deserted me. She feels neglected and disrespected. 
Although she always reigns in my heart as my most beloved, and although she 
abounds with all desirable virtues, and although her love for me has never been 
surpassed, still I offended her. Therefore I was nervous and hesitated to pacify 
her. Feeling insulted, she became annoyed with me and left, and now I am very 
sorry about what happened." 

Q^erse % 

kith karisyati kith vadisyati sd cirarh virahena 
kith dhanena janena kith mama jivitena grhena 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd... (2) 


"She has been suffering from the devastating heat of separation for a long 
time, so I cannot predict her behaviour. What will she do? What will she say? 


Alas! In the absence of Radha, my wealth, my relatives, my life, my home and 
everything seem worthless." 


Sri Krsna is describing his own condition of separation. "Whatever I am feeling 
in separation from Radha, she must also be feeling. How much anxiety and 
distress she must be going through. And my offence is the cause of this pain. 
She is suffering so much because of me. I do not know how she will express her 
anger, jealousy and other feelings when I meet her again. What will she tell her 
intimate friends? She must be making allegations against me, saying, 'He is so 
cruel and heartless'. On the other hand, I will say, 'O Radha, without you - my 
prosperity, my associates, my herds of cows and my good home - everything 
seems insignificant to me.'" 

Q^erse S 

cintaydmi tad-dnanam kutila-bhru kopa-bharena 
sona-padmam ivopari bhramatdkulam bhramarena 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd... (3) 


"I feel as if I am directly beholding the face of Sri Radha, with its arched creeper- 
like eyebrows. Her angry face resembles a red lotus flower surrounded by 
hovering bumblebees." 


Krsna says, "Now I am remembering Radha's lotus face. Her eyebrows must 
have become even more arched now that she is annoyed. Her face is usually 
fair but now it must be red with anger. That dejected face is enhanced by her 
beautiful curved eyebrows that resemble a row of black bumblebees hovering 
over a red lotus flower." 

This verse is an example of vdkydrthopamd alankdra. 


<Act Tjhree 

tarn aharh hrdi sangatdm anisarh bhrsarh ramaydmi 
kirn vane 'nusardmi tdm iha kirn vrthd vilapdmi 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd... (4) 

"Alas! When I continuously realize the direct presence of Radha and deeply 
embrace her in the temple of my heart, why am I uselessly lamenting over her 
and why am I repeatedly searching for her from forest to forest?" 


In separation, when Krsna attains a vision (sphurti) of Radha in the core of his 
intensely anguished heart, he says, "Sri Radha is my most dearly beloved and 
she resides in the temple of my mind all day and night. I incessantly relish an 
abundance of amorous pastimes with her in my heart. She is never separated 
from me. If she is not to be found in the forest, then what profit lies in searching 
for her there. And if I see her here in my heart, then what is the point of 

Q^erse 7 

tanvi khinnam asuyayd hrdayarh tavdkalaydmi 
tan na vedmi kuto gatdsi na tena te 'nunaydmi 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd... (5) 


"O delicate woman with a slender waist, it seems that your heart is contami- 
nated with jealousy. But what can I do? You proudly left in a huff. What kind of 
humble supplication should I offer to dispel your indignation? I have no idea." 



Sri Krsna is distraught in his condition of separation from Radha. When a 
sphurti of Radha suddenly became visible, Krsna began to speak as if she were 
directly before him, addressing her, "O slender-waisted woman" (tanvi). 

"O Radha, I abandoned you to enjoy pastimes with other vraja-gopis. Your 
heart is now polluted by jealousy towards them because you consider yourself 
superior. Your heart is depressed because you are superimposing faults upon 
me. You have left this place to go somewhere else. What can I do about that? 
If I knew where you had gone, I would touch your feet, pacify you and beg for 

Q^erse 8 

drsyase purato gatdgatam eva me vidadhdsi 

kith pureva sa-sambhramam parirambhanam na daddsi 

hari! hari! hatddaratayd... (6) 


"Alas! It seems that you are repeatedly coming and going. Why do you not 
impetuously embrace me as you did before, being impelled by the exhilaration 
of love?" 


"O my darling Krsangi, I am seeing you come and go before my eyes; not more 
than that. You are just coming and going. Why are you not binding me in the 
ropes of your embrace today? Why have you become so cruel?" 

It is true that when a lonely man's despair reaches its highest point, so does 
the intensity of his contemplation. At that time it seems as if his lover is actually 
present before him. Now Krsna has become so desperate in the absence of 
Radha that his meditation has culminated in directly perceiving her before 
his eyes. It appears to him that Radha and only Radha is everywhere, in all 
directions. She is here; she is there. Only Radha appears to him in every aspect 
of existence. 


A.ct 'Uhree 

ksamyatdm aparam kaddpi tavedrsam na karomi 
dehi sundari darsanam mama manmathena dunomi 

hari! hari! hatadarataya... (7) 


"O beautiful one, please forgive me. I will never offend you again. Allow me to 
see you at once. I am reeling from the pain inflicted by Kandarpa." 


The poet is revealing the ultimate limit of Krsna's despondency. A vision of 
Radha began to manifest in his heart. In her presence, he is accepting her as his 
object of worship by saying, "O Radha, please forgive my offences. Whatever 
happened, kindly forget about it. I will never commit such an offence in the 
future. Please give me your darsana. I am your dearest one. Do not leave my 
sight. In separation from you I am being scorched by the heat of amorous 

In this song Sri Krsna is dhira-lalita ndyaka. The prominent rasa is 
vipralambha-srngara arising from mutual anuraga. 

O^erse JO 

varnitam jayadeva-kena haver idam pravanena 

hari! hari! hatadarataya... (8) 


Sri Jayadeva appeared in the village of Kindubilva just as the moon appears 
from the ocean. He has humbly collected Sri Krsna's expressions of sorrow in 
the form of this song. 



Sri Jayadeva has described Krsna's lamentation in separation from Radha with 
profound humility. Just as the moon rises from the ocean, the poet Jayadeva has 
appeared in the village of Kindubilva. Sri Jayadeva is known as PlyusavarsI, "one 
who showers nectar". This is also a name for Rohinl-ramana, the moon. Just as 
everyone is delighted by the moon, this song is bound to delight everyone. 

Q^erse 11 

hrdi bisa-lata-haro nayam bhujangama-nayakah 
kuvalaya-dala-srenl kanthe na sa garala-dyutih 

malayaja-rajo nedam bhasma priya-rahite mayi 
prahara na hara-bhrdntydnanga krudhd kim u dhdvasi 

"Hey Ananga! Are you inflicting pain on me with such fury because you think 
that I am Lord Siva? Why have you become so harsh? This is not the king of 
snakes, VasukI, upon my chest. It is actually a necklace made of lotus stems. 
The blueness of my throat is not the effect of poison, but a garland of blue 
lotus flowers. This is not ash from a funeral pyre smeared on my body. It is 
sandalwood paste applied in the absence of my beloved. So go away! You have 
caught me by mistake, so stop unnecessarily raining your terrible arrows upon 
me. Why are you running after me in such a rage? And look! Lord Siva lives 
happily with half of his body united with ParvatI, whereas I am far from united 
with Radhika - I don't even know where she is." 


<Act Tjhree 


In separation from his dearest Sri Radha, Krsna's heart is devastated. He feels 
that Kamadeva must have mistaken him for Lord Siva. Why else would he attack 
so vehemently with his invincible arrows? Helplessly overpowered, Krsna calls 
out, "Hey Anahga, look! How happily Lord Siva lives, half his body united with 
his beloved Parvatl. However, what to speak of being united with Radhika, who 
is dearer to me than my own breath, I do not even know where she is." 

Sri Krsna is experiencing a sphurti of Radha in the agony of the burning 
sensation caused by Cupid, the god of amorous love. Therefore he directly says, 
"Hey Anahga! Why are you furious with me for no reason and running after 
me, just to beat me incessantly under the misconception that I am Lord Siva? 
This garland looks like a snake but it is actually nothing but a necklace of lotus 
fibres. You have mistaken the line of blue lotuses on my neck for the blueness 
caused by poison on the neck of Lord Siva. This is not ash you see on my body. 
It is Malaya sandalwood paste smeared upon my body to relieve the heat of 
separation from my beloved. But now it has dried up from the heat and turned 
to powder. Without my lover, I am just like a lifeless body. So why are you 
unnecessarily attacking me?" 

This verse portrays vipralambha-srngdra and employs apahnuti alankdra. 
The metre is harini chanda. The verse also includes bhrdntimdn alankdra 
according to the opinion of some learned authorities. 


Q^erse 12 

^ufiv^ftd hhhiPm ^ft hi^iiPm WI$T# II ^ II 

pdnau ma kuru cuta-sdyakam amum ma capam dropaya 

kridd-nirjita-visva murcchita-jandghdtena kirn paurusam 
tasyd eva mrgi-drso manasija prenkhat-katdksdsuga- 
sreni-jarjaritam mandg api mano nddydpi sandhuksate 

"Hey Cupid! You who conquer the entire universe by the power of your bow on 
the pretext of playing a game, I am suffering from the fever of amorous desires. 
In what way will your remarkable prowess be established by assaulting an 
insignificant and decrepit fellow like me. Don't take that mango-bud arrow in 
your hand. If you do, at least do not place it on your bow. Just see! My heart has 
been cut to pieces by the sidelong glances streaming forth from that doe-eyed 
Sri Radha and it has not yet recovered. Therefore do not strike my heart, which 
has already fainted from the convulsions of lust." 


It is as if Kamadeva said to Krsna, "Although Siva, who incinerated my body, is 
certainly my enemy, you have also transgressed my command. Therefore I will 
also aim my arrows at you." 

Then Krsna reproached Kama, "O Manasija, don't take that arrow of mango 
buds in your hand." 

Kamadeva's flower arrows are of five types: (1) dmra mukula (mango buds), 
(2) asoka puspa, (3) mallikd puspa, (4) mddhavt puspa, and (5) bakula puspa. 

Mango buds have sprouted from the tips of their branches because it is 
springtime. Krsna thinks, "Kamadeva has made them into his arrows and he 


<Act Tjhree 

will shoot me while I am in this condition of separation from Radha." Therefore 
he forbids him, "Don't take that mango-bud arrow in your hands." 

Md cdpam dropaya - "If you do, then at least do not put it on your 

Kridd-nirjita-visva - "O you for whom conquering the universe is simply a 
matter of play! With joined palms I beseech you. This arrow will surely deal 
me a mortal blow. You are the conqueror of the universe and I am like a dead 
person in separation from Sri Radha. If a hero like you were to beat a dying 
person, it would simply result in your defamation. You would certainly not be 
applauded for your heroic prowess." 

By the word tnanasija, Krsna implies, "You have arisen from my mind. It is 
not ethical to beating the one from whom you have taken birth." 

"You want to shoot me with arrows on behalf of Radha. But the arrow of her 
sidelong glance is even sharper than your arrows and I have already been torn 
apart by that. What is the necessity of shooting an arrow tipped with incurable 
poison to add to the wounds I have already sustained?" 

This verse is an example of sdrdula-vikridita chanda and dksepa alankdra. 


Q&rf (^Qjita-tjavinda 


Smi^T f^Rf5FTf% f^Hftdlfn II ^ II 

bhru-pallavo dhanur apdnga-tarangitdni 
band gunah sravana-pdlir iti smarena 

tasydm ananga-jaya-jangama-devatdydm 
astrdni nirjita-jaganti kim arpitdni 


"Aha! The bow of fresh petal-like eyebrows, the arrow-like waves of angular 
glances from the corner of the eye, the bowstring of long eyes that almost reach 
the ears - these components comprise the totally infallible military science 
employed by Kamadeva. After conquering everyone in the universe without 
exception, Kamadeva has again offered those weapons to their empress, the 
animate deity of his own victory, Sri Radha." 


Attributing the entire arsenal of Cupid's arrows to Radha, Krsna says, "Kamadeva 
has deposited the weapons that conquered the whole world in Sri Radha." Why? 
Here, the word tat conveys the sense of purvdnubhuti (previous experience). 
By the word tasydm, Krsna indicates that "Kamadeva has deposited the world- 
conquering weapons in Radha, my cherished one, from whom I feel the anguish 
of separation." 

To establish Radha's second unique quality, Krsna says that she is the moving 
deity of Cupid's victory. Kamadeva is the roving celestial who has conquered 
the universe, but he did it only after acquiring weapons from Radha. When 
his objective was accomplished, he again offered those weapons back to their 
presiding deity. 


<Act Tjhree 

Kamadeva's world-conquering weapons are all found in Sri Radha. 

Bhru-pallava-dhanuh - The bow of petal-like eyebrows. Radha's eyebrows 
are compared to fresh petals because they are dark and smooth, and to a bow 
because they are curved. 

Apdnga-taranga - The waves of her sidelong glances are Kamadeva's 
piercing arrows. Thus Krsna implies, "Just as an arrow pierces its target, Radha's 
glance has pierced my heart." 

Astra - The word astra refers to the instruments employed in military 
science. Sri Krsna is comparing the specific capabilities manifest in Radha's 
limbs to particular instruments employed by Kamadeva in his warfare. 

This verse has been composed in vasanta-tilakd chanda and embellished 
with utpreksd and rupaka alankdras. 

fl^TT WHHU^rt rTST ^et HIuWh *Wfd II *X II 

bhru-cdpe nihitah katdksa-visikho nirmdtu marma-vyathdm 
sydmdtmd kutilah karotu kabari-bhdro pi mdrodyamam 

moham tdvad ayam ca tanvi tanutdm bimbddharo rdgavdn 

sad-vrttam stana-mandalam tava katharh prdnair mama kridati 


"O slender Radha, the arrow of your sidelong glance, shooting forth from the 
bow of your eyebrow, may tear my heart to pieces. The rope of your dark 
curling locks may bind me like a prisoner. Your lips, as soft and red as bimba 
fruit, may bewilder me. But your perfectly round and enchanting breasts are 
well-behaved. So why are they playing with my life-airs on the pretext of 
a sport?" 



While meditating on Radha, Krsna says, "The waves of your sidelong glance 
are inflicting pain within the core of my heart like arrows from the bow of your 
arched eyebrows. This behaviour is quite befitting because it is natural for a 
bow and arrows to give distress to others. Wounding others is their occupation 

"Your curling black hair, which is naturally crooked, launches an attack to 
kill me. This is also not inappropriate because it is natural for those whose 
hearts are crooked and corrupt to attempt murder. 

"O slender-limbed Radha, your red (rdgt) lips make me swoon and fall 
unconscious. This is also befitting. Is there anything that those who are 
passionate and deeply attached (rdgt) will not do to achieve their desires? It is 
their very nature to engage in bewildering others. 

"But why are your watermelon-like breasts trying to steal my life-airs on 
the pretext of playing a game? This seems to be thoroughly inappropriate. 
Such behaviour is not natural for persons of integrity. Those who are sad-vrtta 
(perfectly behaved or perfectly round) do not enjoy playing around with others' 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and virodha alankdra. 

O^erse IS 

tdni sparsa-sukhdni te ca taraldh snigdhd drsor vibhramds 

tad vaktrdmbuja-saurabham sa ca sudhd-syandi girdrh vakrimd 

sd bimbddhara-mddhurtti visaydsange pi cen mdnasam 

tasydrh lagna-samddhi hanta viraha-vyddhih katharh vardhate 


<Act Tjhree 


"While meditating on my beloved in a secluded place, my skin thrills on 
experiencing the happiness of her pure touch. The restlessness of her eyes, her 
affectionate expressions, her erroneous behaviour due to the bewilderment of 
love, and the way she casts her glance are bringing me back to life. I am being 
inundated by the fragrance of her lotus mouth. I can hear the trickling ambrosia 
of her words as she speaks one crooked statement after another. I am tasting the 
sweet nectar of her enchanting bimba-f ruit lips. My mind has become deeply 
attached to these objects of perception in this condition of trance. So why is 
my dire suffering from the disease of separation increasing so rapidly at every 


The malady of separation flows within Krsna's heart even during a vivid vision 
Csphilrtt) of romantic pastimes with Radha in his meditation. Describing this 
contradiction, Krsna says, "My mind has become situated in a trance on Radha. 
So why am I still being tortured by feelings of separation? Separation (virahd) is 
a condition of distress that occurs in the absence of one's beloved, but my mind 
adheres closely to Sri Radha. 

"The absence of internal meeting can be considered separation. However, 
although I am experiencing internal union, I still feel separation. This type of 
separation must be caused by the absence of sensory union. That is why it is 
also said that the experience of sensory pleasure within the heart, despite the 
absence of the sense objects, can also be referred to as union (samyoga). But 
now this has also become a feeling of viraha." 

Sri Krsna is wondering, "What is real? The experience of meeting also 
occurs in separation. I am feeling the happiness of Radha's touch on my skin. 
With my eyes I am beholding her restless eyes, full of affectionate mellows and 
overflowing with prema. With my nose I can smell the fragrance of her lotus 
mouth, just as I have experienced before. In this trance, my ears are tasting the 
trickling nectar of Radha's crooked words as if I were directly perceiving them. 
Similarly, I am immersed in the luscious nectar of her tender, red bimba-iruit 


lower lip. In this way I am connected with all five kinds of sense objects. So I 
cannot understand - why does the torment of separation continue to increase?" 

The present verse includes sdrdula-vikridita chanda, samuccaya alankdra 
and vipralambha-srngdra. 

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tiryak-kantha-vilola-mauli-taralottamsasya vamsoccarad- 
giti-sthdna-krtdvadhdna-laland-laksair na samlaksitdh 

sammugdhe madhusudanasya madhure rddhd-mukhendau sudhd- 
sdre kandalitds ciram dadhatu vah ksemam katdksormayah 


Sri Krsna is compelled by ecstatic emotions to adopt an angular pose, crooked 
in three places. His crown and earrings are swaying because of the way he tilts 
his neck to one side. Being situated in the midst of millions of attractive gopis, 
he has inspired them to meditate on the most provocative, swoon-inducing note 
of his flute song, as he stares steadily upon the enchanting and ambrosial lotus 
face of Sri Radha, simply to behold her excessive affection for him. May the 
countless waves of Sri Krsna's sidelong glance bestow auspiciousness upon all. 


In the last verse of Act Three, the poet has substantiated the words of Radha. 
The emotions Krsna felt after seeing Radha when he was situated in the midst 
of the gopis are being presented herein. The poet has blessed the reciters and 
hearers of this composition by saying, "May that bewildered Madhusudana 
bestow auspiciousness upon you all." 


<Act Tjhree 

Here Krsna is called Madhusudana, meaning "bumblebee", or literally, 
"one who drinks honey". Krsna became overjoyed upon beholding the slight 
restlessness and striking beauty of Radha's lotus face and he completely 
abandoned all other desires to become exclusively devoted to her. Because 
Radha's sidelong glance emanated waves of excessive affection, Madhusudana 
became transfixed on madhu, the intoxicating honey of her enchanting 
moonlike face. 

The abundant beauty of her face has been expressed by the word 
sammugdha. The word madhura implies that Radha's face is sweeter than the 
nectar of immortality. Krsna beholds that face with great eagerness because of 
its spellbinding sweetness. The word sudha-sara also expresses that Radha's 
face is the essence of ambrosia. She has been likened to the moon because she 
makes Sri Krsna joyful. 

Although Krsna was transfixed upon the face of Radha, the other gopis 
around him were completely unaware of it. Krsna was playing a melody upon 
his flute. The melody ascended to a modulation around the most provocative 
note, which immersed everyone's attention in the joy of listening. As he drew 
everyone's consciousness towards the sound of his flute, he also mesmerized 
Radha with his flute melody in such a way that the other gopis could not 
understand what he was doing. This is an illustration of Krsna's cunning 

Describing Krsna's posture the poet says, tiryak-kantha-vilola-mauli- 
taralottamsasya - "He had adopted a crooked pose by tilting his neck to one 
side. Thus his earrings and the ornaments on his crown were oscillating." The 
word mauli can mean both "crown" and "head". Moving the head is a fault 
for a flute player, whereas not moving the head is considered to be a mark of 
expertise. Sri Krsna's skill is extraordinary, therefore his head was not moving. 
Rather, only his earrings and the ornaments on his crown were swaying. 

This verse includes rupaka alankdra and sdrdula-vikridita chanda. 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 
Act Three of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Mugdhz-mzdhusudana. 



A,ct (^four 

— snigdha-madhusudanah — 

r Che lender Q&laper ofoMadhu 

Scene Eight 

Q^erse J 

Pl^ H^HlfejrW I 


nikunje mandam dsthitam 
prdha prema-bharodbhrdntam 

mddhavam rddhikd-sakhi 


ewildered by love for Radha, Krsna was sitting in a dense grove on 
the Yamuna riverside feeling deeply depressed. Radha's dear friend 
began to speak to him as follows. 


After depicting Radha and Krsna's love for each other, now the poet will 
describe the methods employed by a female envoy who desires to bring about 
their meeting. 

Impelled by loneliness prior to meeting (purva-rdga), Radha revealed her 
burning desire to meet with Krsna to her friend. After consoling Radha with 
reassuring words, that sakhi set off to find Krsna. She found him going insane 
with anxiety in the absence of Radha as he sat in a rattan-cane grove (vetasl- 
nikunja) on the Yamuna riverside. Then Radha's intimate friend spoke to 





Qbong- 8 

The musical mode is karndta rdga, the rhythm, ekatdlt tdla. 

Karndta rdga - Sikhikantha is walking, holding a huge elephant 
tusk on his right shoulder with one hand and wielding a sword in 
the other. Dancing angels and other celestial beings glorify him 
with respectful prayers. On such an occasion, it is appropriate to 
present karndta rdga. 


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nindati candanam indu-kiranam anu vindati khedam adhlram 
vydla-nilaya-milanena garalam iva kalayati malaya-samlram 

sd virahe tava dlnd 

mddhava manasija-visikha-bhaydd iva bhdvanayd tvayi Una (refrain) (1) 


"O Madhava! Radha is experiencing intense suffering in separation from you. 
She is so afraid of the incessant rain of Madana's arrows that she has resorted 
to dhydna-yoga to find relief from this slow-burning fire of distress. She has 
unconditionally surrendered to you and now she is completely immersed in you 
by the practice of meditation. In your absence, she criticizes sandalwood paste. 
When she sees the rays of the moon, she feels as if her body is burning and 
the Malaya breeze even increases the heat. She also considers the breeze from 
the Malaya Mountains to be like poison because it is mixed with the hissing of 
venomous snakes who reside around the sandalwood trees there." 


The sakhl informs Krsna about the agony Radha feels in separation from him. 
She explains that Radha is in a deep depression. 

"Fearing Kamadeva's arrows, she began to meditate. Now she has entered 
the state of satnddhi, exclusive trance upon you. Just as a person who is afraid 
of being shot by arrows runs to take shelter of someone else to save his life, 
similarly she has taken shelter of you because you are the embodiment of 
amorous love. When you are satisfied, there will be no need to fear anyone. 
O Madhava, in separation from you, Radha rebukes the sandalwood paste 
smeared on her body because it is not a source of happiness. Rather, it seems 
like a great conflagration. Even the cooling rays of the moon seem to set her 
heart ablaze because the moon ignites the fire of her desires. She feels that the 
Malaya breeze must have become poisonous from the hissing of the venomous 
snakes who wind around the sandalwood trees of Malaya Mountain." 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


The phrase manasija-visikha-bhayad iva is a charming example of utpreksa 
alankdra. This verse is also embellished by rupaka and virodha alankdras. 

O^erse 3 

avirala-nipatita-madana-sardd iva bhavad-avandya visdlam 
sva-hrdaya-marmani varma karoti sajala-nalini-dala-jdlam 

sd virahe tava dtnd... (2) 


"The arrows of Kamadeva are falling incessantly upon her heart. Since you are 
also present there, she is making a mystical shield (kavacd) to protect you by 
covering her vulnerable heart with large lotus petals bearing droplets of water." 


By meditating continuously on Krsna, Radha attained oneness of heart with 
him. To inform him of this, the sakht says, "O Madhava, you are always present 
in the heart of Radha. She thought to herself, 'Kamadeva is perpetually raining 
his arrows upon me but Sri Krsna should not undergo the slightest difficulty' So 
she covers her vulnerable heart with large lotus petals bearing droplets of water 
(Jala). She is employing all possible measures to protect you." 

The word Jala can also mean "net". The sakht implies, "She has covered her 
heart with the net of lotus petals" to express Radha's sentiment, "May you never 
leave my heart even for a moment." 

"The quiver of Kamadeva is inexhaustible. He shoots his arrows one after 
another. O Madhava, although she is helpless in separation from you, she still 
tries to think of a remedy. But what can she think of? The lotus petals she 
uses are themselves exactly like Kamadeva's arrows. And from where will the 
droplets of water for this shield come? How pitiful it is that even by making a 
shield, she simply increases her own suffering." 


kusuma-visikha-sara-talpam analpa-vildsa-kald-kamaniyam 
vratam iva tava parirambha-sukhdya karoti kusuma-sayantyam 

sa virahe tava dind... (3) 


"Madhava! Radha is making a delightful flower bed, suitable for the enjoyment 
of many amorous pastimes. Yet it seems to be a bed of Kamadeva's arrows. 
She is performing severe austerities in the form of a vow to recline on a bed of 
arrows in the hope of attaining your deep embrace." 


"Sri Krsna! Radha is burning in separation from you. She is making a bed of 
flowers. Although it appears to be the highest art of lovemaking personified, to 
her this bed looks like a bed of Kamadeva's arrows." The sakhi implies, "Just as 
one might observe a dreadful vow to attain some fabulous happiness, similarly 
Radha is performing sarasayyd-vrata, the severe austerity of lying on a bed of 
arrows, for the sake of attaining the uncommon happiness of your embrace." 

Q^erse S 

vahati ca valita-vilocana-jaladharam dnana-kamalam uddram 
vidhum iva vikata-vidhuntuda-danta-dalana-galitdmrta-dhdram 

sa virahe tava dind... (4) 


"Just as a current of nectar began to flow from the moon after it was bitten 
by the terrible gaping mouth of Rahu, similarly an incessant stream of tears is 
flowing from the restless eyes of Sri Radha's exceptionally attractive lotus face." 


The saMz says, "O Madhava, an unbroken stream of tears flows from Radha's 
restless and expansive eyes. It seems as if the fearsome Rahu has cut the moon 
with his teeth, causing a stream of nectar to flow incessantly. Radha's face is not 
like a lotus, but like the moon, and the teardrops flowing from her eyes are like 
nectar (amrtd)" 

This verse is an example of upamd alankdra. 

vilikhati rahasi kuranga-madena bhavantam asamasara-bhutam 
pranamati makaram adho vinidhdya kare ca saram nava-cutam 

sd virahe tava dind... (5) 

"O Sri Krsna, in a secluded place, Radha is painting a picture of your captivating 
form in musk, considering you to be Kamadeva himself. After depicting you 
with mango-bud arrows in your hand and riding upon a rnakara, she bows 
down to offer respectful obeisances to your portrait." 

"When Radha sits in a secluded place and paints your portrait with liquid musk 
(kasturi), she portrays you as Kamadeva - the god of sensual love - because, 
other than you, who can drive her heart insane with desire? Only you can fulfil 
her cherished ambitions. Then she paints mango buds in your hand. They are 
the most powerful amongst all the arrows of Kamadeva. She depicts you riding 
upon a rnakara, just like the predominating deity of lust. Furthermore, to attain 
liberation from the burning sensation of amorous desires, she respectfully bows 
down before you and offers heartfelt prayers." 
This verse includes upamd alankdra. 


prati-padam idam apt nigadati madhava tava carane patitdham 
tvayi vimukhe mayi sapadi sudhd-nidhir api tanute tanu-ddham 

sd virahe tava dind... (6) 


"O Madhava, after painting a picture of you in this form, Radha pleads again 
and again, 'Hey Sri Krsna! I am falling at your feet. As soon as you become 
indifferent to me, even the moon-god Candrama, with his chalice of nectar, 
begins to shower fire upon my body'" 


The sakhi says, "O Sri Krsna, wherever Radha goes, at every step she utters, 
'I fall at your feet. Please do not be indifferent to me. Whenever you are not 
satisfied with me, even Candrama, the ocean of cooling nectar, ignites a fire 
within my body'" 

The author of Rasa-manjarl hints about the reason for Radha's use of the 
word madhava. The syllable ma refers to Laksmi, and dhava means pati, her 
Lord. When Krsna stays close to Radha, even Laksmi, who relates to Radha as 
a rival, cannot harm her. But when Krsna is indifferent to Radha, Laksml-devl's 
brother, Candrama, tortures her for being the rival of his sister. 

This verse includes atisayokti alankdra. The description of Candrama acting 
against his nature is an example of virodha alankdra. 


Q^erse 8 

dhydna-layena purah parikalpya bhavantam atlva durapam 
vilapati hasati vistdati roditi cancati muncati tdpam 

sd virahe tava dind... (7) 


"Sri Radha is completely absorbed in meditation on you. She imagines that 
you are directly before her. Sometimes she laments in separation, sometimes 
she expresses jubilation, sometimes she cries and sometimes she abandons all 
suffering by being embraced in a momentary vision." 


The sakhi says, "O Krsna, it is difficult for Radha to find you by searching and 
other methods, so she is absorbed in meditation instead and she imagines that 
you are with her. When she feels that you are directly before her, she paints 
your picture and when she looks at your portrait, knowing you to be nearby, 
she begins to laugh. Her mind becomes agitated with waves of joy, but when 
you do not embrace her, her loud, insane laughter transforms into a cry of 
lamentation. When your imaginary form disappears, she begins to embrace it 
again. She thinks, 'If Sri Krsna sees me in this condition, he will certainly come 
under my control.' With this intention she abandons her anguish and desists 
from floundering in the fire of separation." 

According to the commentary Rasika-priyd, the word vilapati should read 
vilikhati. This verse features dtpaka alankdra. The heroine is expressing 


Aid Q^faur 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam adhikam yadi manasd nataniyam 

sd virahe tava dind... (8) 


This song composed by Sri Jayadeva, based on the words spoken by Radha's 
dear friend, should be enacted within the temple of the heart. The sakhi's 
description of Radha's anguish in separation from Sri Hari are worthy of 
constant recitation. 


In this verse Sri Jayadeva says that the tender and youthful Radha is perturbed 
by separation from Krsna. The sakhi has revealed Radha's confidential love 
to Krsna and her love-laden presentation is worthy of being enacted within 
one's heart. Acting is prominent in dramatic theory (natyd). Therefore the word 
nataniyam means "worthy of being enacted"; it can also mean "relishable" and 
"to be tasted". In his Ndtya-sdstra, Bharata Muni has stated nata sabdo rase 
mukhyah - "The primary meaning of the word nata is rasa." 

The purport of the phrase sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam adhikam is that the 
entire essence of the sakhi's words is fully present in the poem of Sri Jayadeva. 
Therefore it is to be served and relished by pure devotees. 




Scene Nine 

Q^erse JO 
zmmt faPmw^ ftw+iylHitf ifa ^dirti^ 

rTFfrsfa *c|R^H ^IcI^^H^IrtlcbrtlMN^ I 

dvdso vipindyate priya-sakhi-mdldpi jdldyate 

tdpo pi svasitena ddva-dahana-jvdld-kaldpdyate 

sdpi tvad-virahena hanta harini-rupdyate hd katham 
kandarpo pi yamdyate viracayan sdrdula-vikrtditam 


"O Sri Krsna, my sakhi Radha is behaving exactly like a deer. She considers 
her residence to be the forest and her friends to be like hunters with a net. The 
flames of the blazing forest fire in her body are intensified by her own sighs of 
pain. Alas, alas! Playing just like a tiger, Kandarpa has become death personified 
as he begins to maul her life airs." 


A picture of Radha's pitiful condition is being painted by her intimate compa- 
nion. Radha is exactly like a deer when she is bereft of Krsna's association. This 
fair-complexioned Radha resides in the forest, considering it to be her home. 
Being scorched by separation from her beloved, she wants to flee, but the net of 
the hunter-like sakhis is spread out before her. Her movements thus restricted, 
she continuously feels frustrated. Even her dearmost sakhis seem to be fettering 
her like deer-hunters equipped with a trap. As a deer becomes alarmed and 
confused upon seeing a forest fire, similarly, she does not know what to do 
when her long breaths mix with the heat of her body and set her ablaze like a 


A>ct (^four 

Radha's sorrowful sighs seem just like the flames of a forest fire. Only the 
sound "Alas! Alas!" comes from her mouth. Kamadeva is always favourably 
disposed to Radha when she is close to Krsna. But now Kamadeva is playing 
like a tiger, as if he wants to kill her. That same god of amorous love now 
appears to be death personified. 

Amorous desire is like the play of a tiger who pounces upon an innocent 
deer. The metre of this verse is also called sdrdula-vikridita (tiger's play). The 
entire metre is exactly like the play of Kamadeva. 

The comparison of Radha with a deer is also appropriate. The sakhl implies, 
"A discerning woman will fall in love with one who has affection for her, but 
Radha has fallen in love with you. She is constantly immersed in the ocean of 
affection. How can you be devoid of love for her? Only a living entity born in 
the animal species can have one-sided love." 

Furthermore, like a deer, her body is feeble and she is perplexed about what 
to do. The helpless and innocent Radha is tortured by the desire for Krsna's 
affection. Over and above all, Cupid is also demonstrating his prowess like a 
cruel tiger. However, in this case, it is the highly discerning Radha who has 
fallen in love with an unwilling candidate. 

The chanda of this verse is sdrdula-vikridita. The alankdras are luptopamd 
and virodhdbhdsa. 





The musical mode is desakha rdga, the rhythm, ekatdll tola. 

The rays of the moon are illuminating all directions. The hero 
is a wrestler. His bodily hair stands on end in delight as he 
makes a sound by slapping his huge arms. At such a time it is 
appropriate to sing desakha rdga. 

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O^erse 11 

stana-vinihitam api hdram uddram 
sd manute krsa-tanur iva bhdram 

rddhikd virahe tava kesava (refrain) (1) 


"O Kesava, Radha is so emaciated in separation from you that the charming 
necklace upon her breasts has become a burden." 


In this song the sakhi describes Radha's agony in a new way. Radha's limbs have 
become painfully thin in the absence of Krsna. Now she cannot even bear the 
weight of the garland of lotus flowers upon her breasts. 

The author of Gtta-govinda-dtpikd comments that kam is another name 
for sukha (happiness). Krsna is the controller of kam, therefore he is called 
Kesava. The word kesa means "to bestow happiness upon all". The syllable va 
in Kesava indicates the specific nectar (amrtd) that is the life and soul of young 
women. Consequently, Krsna is called Kesava because he is the life and soul of 
all the young women of Vraja. This being the case, why is his lover, Radha, so 
unhappy? Impelled by loneliness, she says the most wonderful things without 
even speaking. Her ornaments are not a burden; they are a curse. Therefore she 
wants to throw them away. 


Q^erse 12 

sarasa-masrnam api malayaja-pankam 
pasyati visam iva vapusi sasankam 

radhika virahe tava kesava... (2) 


"O Kesava, in separation from you, Radha looks upon the moist, smooth sandal- 
wood paste smeared on her body as if it were poison and she becomes afraid." 


"Although Malaya sandalwood paste is smooth and refreshing, she feels as if 
she were besmeared with poison. In the agony of her loneliness, sandalwood 
ointment is far from pleasing; it is positively distressful." 

Q^erse 13 

svasita-pavanam anupama-parinaham 
madana-dahanam iva vahati sa-ddham 

radhika virahe tava kesava... (3) 

"Her body is being scorched by long sorrowful sighs, heated by the flames of 
passion's fire. Nevertheless, she continues to hold on." 


"The intense heat of separation within her heart is intolerable. She lets out long 
sighs in an attempt to cool off, but it has the opposite effect. Instead of finding 
relief, she feels as if the fire is spreading throughout her whole body. It is only 
passion that blazes in this fire." 


disi disi kirati sajala-kana-jdlam 
nayana-nalinam iva vigalita-ndlam 

rddhikd virahe tava kesava... (4) 

"Her lotus eyes glance in all directions, scattering the rain of her teardrops like 
water-speckled lotus flowers detached from their stems." 

"Her tearful eyes are as charming as blue lotuses bearing droplets of water. All 
directions are bound by the unbroken flow of her tears that spread out like a 
net as she twirls around in anticipation of your return, thinking that you could 
appear from any direction. As a lotus flower has no fixed position once broken 
from its stem, her eyes do not remain anywhere for more than a moment. But 
for you, there is no support upon which they might remain." 
This verse includes upamd and utpreksd alankdras. 

O^erse IS 

tyajati na pdni-talena kapolam 
bdla-sasinam iva sdyam alolam 

rddhikd virahe tava kesava... (5) 

"Her cheek resembles the beauty of the newly risen moon in the twilight sky 
when she sits alone in a secluded place, holding it upon her reddish lotus hand." 


"Radha was confused about what to do, so she became as if inanimate. Now 
she holds the palm of her hand against her cheek and remains perfectly still 


because she is immersed in anxious thoughts, 'Somehow or other, the day 
passes by, but what will happen when night falls? It will be like an aeon.' Her 
face is thin and lacklustre like the late evening moon. Half covered by her hand, 
it resembles the moon on dvitiyd, the second day of the waxing fortnight." 

As twilight detains the newly risen moon, the shield of her hand seems 
to provide a shelter for her face. The comparison with the crescent moon is 
appropriate because her face is rendered half-visible by the covering of her hand. 

Q^erse 16 

nayana-visayam api kisalaya-talpam 
ganayati vihita-hutdsa-vikalpam 

rddhikd virahe tava kesava... (6) 


"Although she sees a bed of fresh petals directly before her, in her bewilderment 
she perceives it to be a blazing fire." 


"Radha is traumatized by your absence. When she looks upon a bed of fresh red 
petals, she sees a funeral pyre set ablaze. She is experiencing illusory sensory 
perceptions because her eyes are attached to you." 

Doubt about the identity of a substance arises from similarity with another 
substance. Fire is red and burning. Flower petals are also red and burning for 
women afflicted by loneliness. Therefore Radha mistakes the petals for fire. 

Q^erse 17 

harir iti harir itijapati sa-kdmam 
viraha-vihita-maraneva nikdmam 

rddhikd virahe tava kesava... (7) 


A>ct (^four 


"It seems that Radha has decided to give up her life. In separation from you, 
she continuously chants japa of the name, 'Sri Hari, Sri Hari', with the desire to 
attain you." 

"Because Radha is burning in the fire of separation, it is as if she has decided 
that she will not maintain her life any longer. Just as those who are without a 
hope in the world and who wish to die chant japa of the name 'Sri Hari' day and 
night, similarly Radha also incessantly chants japa of the name 'Sri Hari' with 
the desire to attain you." 

Krsna is called Hari because he destroys the suffering of those who take 
shelter of him. Radha is chanting with this ambition: "I may not attain him in 
this life, but by chanting japa of 'Hari Hari', I will definitely attain him as my 
most beloved in the next life." 

QFerse 18 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam iti gitam 
sukhayatu kesava-padam upanltam 

radhika virahe tava kesava... (8) 


May this song of Sri Jayadeva bestow happiness upon the devotees who are 
unconditionally surrendered at the feet of Krsna. 


This song will certainly be a source of joy for the unalloyed devotees because 
their meditation will easily arrive at the lotus feet of Krsna (kesava-padam) 
simply by remembering the field of Radha's heart described herein. Another 
meaning is, "The poet has recited this song in the presence of the pure devotees 
(Vaisnavas)." The etymology of kesavah padam is sthdnam yasyd 'sau tarn 


kesava-padam - "Those Vaisnavas who have attained Bhagavan are called 

The song is embellished throughout by upamd alankdra. The metre is 
mdldcatuspadi chanda. 

Q^erse J 9 

WIW^wrfrT ^IHltffd Md^lfd H^r4pM I 
l*dlc|riJdH*c|} cUdH*fi<^ f% # T^TrT 

wtafdH SraWfa ^ rTrPtvS^rejT ^fT^: II ^ II 

s<2 romdncati sit-karoti vilapaty utkampate tdmyati 

dhydyaty udbhramati pramtlati pataty udydti murcchaty api 

etdvaty atanu-jvare vara-tanur jiven na kith te rasdt 

svar-vaidya-pratima prasldasi yadi tyakto 'nyathd hastakah 


"O best of physicians! You are just like the celestial physicians, the Asvini- 
kumaras. The exquisitely beautiful Radha has become deranged by the anxiety 
of separation. Sometimes her hair stands on end, sometimes she begins to 
gasp and sometimes she becomes startled. Sometimes she weeps out loud 
and at other times she trembles. Sometimes she meditates on you with rapt 
attention. She wanders throughout the places of your loving pastimes. When 
she is overwhelmed with confusion, she closes her eyes. Sometimes she falls 
to the ground. Then she stands up and prepares to go, but she suddenly faints 
and falls to the ground again. She is afflicted with sannipdta-jvara, a dangerous 
fever resulting from disorder of the bodily humours. If you are satisfied, kindly 
administer the medicine of rasdmrta to counteract these violent transformations 
of passion. Then she may attain the treasure of her prana. Otherwise her hands 
will soon be motionless (she will die)." 


A>ct (^four 


"Radha is afflicted with a virulent fever. The fever of kdrna has reached the 
critical stage of sannipdta. Radha is not only thirsting for you by her external 
volition. She also lives in you by involuntary bodily transformations (sdttvika- 
bhdvas). This is the evidence of her pure love." 
The sdttvika-bhdvas are as follows: 

stambhah svedo 'tha romdncah 

svarabhango 'tha vepathuh 
vaivanryam asrupralayd- 

vityastau sdttvikd matdh 

Romdncati- Its etymology is romdnca vidyate yasya sa romdncah. romdncita 
ity drthah. tadvad dcarati romdncati - "One who is thrilled with horripilation is 
called romdncita and the activity of a romdncita is called romdncati" 

Vaivarnya - "She gasps due to incessantly remembering and worrying about 

Asru- "She weeps when she remembers your virtues." 

Vepathu - "She thinks, 'How will I be able to tolerate the pain of separation 
from Sri Krsna?' and trembles at the thought." 

Sveda - "On becoming mentally and physically debilitated, she perspires 

Stambha - "As she meditates upon you, she closes her eyes as if all the 
activities of her senses were about to cease." 

Vepathu - The second example of vepathu is indicated by the word 
udbhramati. "She wanders throughout the places of your playful pastimes in the 
hope of finding you." 

Svara-bhanga - Choking of the voice is indicated by the word pramilati. "She 
closes her eyes and remembers your embrace and other activities. Thus she is 
unable to speak." 

Stambha - The second example of becoming stunned is intimated by the 
word patati, "She falls". She falls to the ground as she walks because her body is 
so weak and emaciated. 


Pralaya - The word udyati, "She gets up", indicates that after falling she 
stands up again. Then Radha's friend informs Krsna about the sdttvika-bhdva 
called pralaya (devastation) by saying murcchati, "She faints". 

Radha's dear sakhi addressed Sri Krsna, "You are like the Asvini-kumaras, 
the expert physicians of heaven. If you are pleased with Radha, will the disease 
of sensual desire not be cured? The use of a tonic is forbidden when a raging 
fever is in the advanced stage. We try to relieve her by putting cool lotus petals 
on her body and fanning her with a palm-leaf, but nothing relieves the disease 
of separation. Rather, it is gradually increasing. She has become so weak that 
she can only move her hands. If she were to know that you will not agree to 
meet her, then her demise would be assured. 

"She has given her heart exclusively to you, so if you do not save her life by 
giving her your audience, then you will surely incur the sin of abandoning a 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda, dipaka alankara and 
vipralambha-srngara-rasa. The hero is anukula or daksina nayaka and the 
heroine is utkanthita nayika. A female attendant who assists the heroine is 
called a sakhi. 

O^erse 20 

fc|HTt>s||Sri ^>^ ^T 7TSTT- 

f^Hi e*sdl<*fa <*l*U|Ufa II ^O || 

smaraturdm daivata-vaidya-hrdya 


vimukta-bddhdm kuruse na rddhdm 
upendra vajrdd api ddruno 'si 


A>ct (^four 


"O Upendra! You are more expert in medical affairs than the celestial physi- 
cians. Radha is suffering from the heat of Cupid. She can only stay alive if she 
takes the medicine of bodily union with you. Her disease, the affliction of 
unfulfilled kdma, is very difficult to cope with. Radha is about to die. If you do 
not relieve her, then we will know that you are harder than a thunderbolt." 

The sakhi has decorated Krsna with two specific titles: 

Daivata-vaidyahrdya - Krsna is even more pleasant and captivating than the 
celestial physicians, the Asvini-kumaras. 

Upendra - Krsna previously appeared from the womb of Mother Aditi in 
the form of Sri Vamanadeva to bestow auspiciousness upon the aggrieved 
demigods. In that incarnation his name was Upendra because he was the 
younger brother of Indra. This address alludes to Krsna's personal oath to 
always protect his dependants. 

The sakhi confides in Krsna, "Radha has become a victim of sensual love- 
sickness. The only medicine for this incurable disease is to be united with you. 
The touch of your limbs is like nectar for her. There is no need for you to make 
even the slightest extraneous endeavour. There will be no difficulty whatsoever 
on your part. So if you do not bring her back to life, then you must be even 
harder than a thunderbolt." 

Appropriately, the chanda of this verse is upendra-vajra. 


Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavinda 

QPerse 21 

SZTFRft T^fH feRTT ^Rfa $ftnTT ST^t Mlfuifd II ^ II 

kandarpa-jvara-samjvardtura-tanor dscaryam asyds cirarh 
cetas candana-candramah kamalini-cintdsu santdmyati 

kintu kldnti-vasena sltalataram Warn ekam eva priyam 
dhydyanti rahasi sthitd katham api ksind ksanam prdniti 


"Radha is afflicted with the high fever of unrestrained passion. How astonishing 
it is that she burns as soon as she thinks of the remedies for a high temperature 
such as sandalwood, moonshine and lotus flowers. Alas! Her body has become 
feeble and cold from fatigue. As she meditates exclusively on you in a secluded 
place, she somehow stays alive for a few moments more." 


"O Madhava, she is staying alive only in the hope of attaining union with 
you. Her fever has reached the critical condition of sannipdta, wherein all 
methods of mitigating the fever are useless. Sandalwood paste, the cooling 
moonshine or lotus flowers simply do not work. Her condition has reached its 
ultimate limit wherein her temperature increases as soon as she even thinks of 
these remedies. Sometimes, as the fever rises, she becomes so weary that her 
temperature suddenly drops and her body becomes cold from the evaporation 
of perspiration. This lover is missing you so much. She meditates exclusively 
upon you in her restless heart. She has grown thin in your absence. Even in the 
midst of such arduous adversity, she considers a moment's meditation on you to 
be a grand festival and thus she holds on to her life-air. 

"If you are wondering how she stays alive and how she continues to breathe 
at this present moment, then the answer is that you are her only beloved and 


A>ct (^four 

there is still a chance that she may attain the touch of your cool body She will 
live only for a few more seconds on the strength of this hope. If you do not 
meet her without delay, then it is possible that she will never be restored to life." 
This verse includes sdrdula-vikridita chanda, virodha alankdra and 

Q^erse 22 

ksanam api virahahpurd na sehe 
nayana-nimllana-khinnayd yayd te 

svasiti katham asau rasdla-sdkhdm 
cira-virahena vilokya puspitdgrdm 

"When gazing at you, Radha could not tolerate the moment's separation caused 
by the blinking of her eyes. So I have no idea how she stays alive during this 
long period of painful separation, especially when she sees a delightful mango 
tree in full bloom (with fresh flowering blossoms on its upper branches)." 


"O Krsna, previously Radha would always stay close to you because she could 
not tolerate your absence even for a second. Even the momentary blinking of 
her eyes was a source of great difficulty. She used to think, 'Why did Brahma 
create eyelids that blink?' She would undergo immeasurable suffering when the 
slightest obstacle would obstruct her vision of your face. So how can she tolerate 
this prolonged separation, especially when she sees blossoms on the tips of a 
mango tree? How does she continue to breathe? Blossoms have sprouted on 


every single branch. The tips of the branches have become rasdla, the essence 
of all rasa. It is now Vasanta season. In springtime, lonely heroines experience a 
pain just like death. O Krsna, kindly meet with Radha without delay." 

Radha also thinks, "Just as I am afflicted with kama when I see blossoms 
on the tips of the mango tree, Krsna must also be afflicted with kama for me. 
Therefore, he will certainly come to meet me." 

Appropriately, this verse is composed in the chanda called puspitdgrd 
(flowering tips). 

O^erse 23 

^rfcr d^ftdl^ddl R^HsM^dl 

sH^llMddlWdld *ra?Tt ^Jffk cb^N: II ^ II 

vrsti-vydkula-gokuldvana-rasdd uddhrtya govardhanam 

bibhrad vallava-vallabhdbhir adhikdnanddc ciram cumbitah 

darpeneva tad-arpitddhara-tati sindura-mudrdnkito 

bdhur gopa-tanos tanotu bhavatdm sreydmsi kamsa-dvisah 


The arms of Krsna competed with Indra by lifting and holding aloft Giri 
Govardhana to protect the anxious residents of Gokula from heavy rainfall. 
His arms were kissed for a long time by the beautiful young gopis and smeared 
with kunkuma from those newly married gopis' lips and the sindura from their 
foreheads. May those arms of the destroyer of Karhsa, Sri Krsna, who appears in 
the form of a cowherd boy, bestow auspiciousness upon you all. 


Mangaldntdni ca sdstrdni prathante - "A scripture that is auspicious in the 
beginning, the middle and the end, is preached far and wide." According to this 




\*. x 




injunction, the poet Sri Jayadeva has presented an invocation of auspiciousness 
to conclude Act Four. This invocation pronounces a blessing. "May the arms 
of Krsna bestow auspiciousness upon the reciters and hearers of this Gita- 

The unique features of Krsna's arms have been described in the first line 
of this verse. In a rage, Indra had incited the puskara and avartaka clouds to 
release a terrifying bombardment of rain to destroy Gokula. Seeing the anxiety 
of the cowherd folk, Krsna immediately uprooted Govardhana Mountain and 
held it aloft upon his hand to protect them. At that time, Krsna's arms mani- 
fested the mellow of chivalry (vira-rasd) in a way that stimulated the romantic 
mood {sfngdra-rasd) . 

While Krsna was holding Govardhana, the gopis, immersed in ecstasy, began 
to kiss his arms. As they beheld his dexterity, sweetness and beauty, they made 


red marks on his arms with sindura from their brows and the gloss from their 
brilliant red lips. 

May the arms of Krsna, marked with the signs of his intoxicating good 
fortune, bestow auspiciousness upon all. 

The title of this Act, Snigdha-rnadhusudana, implies that when Krsna heard 
about Radha's sorrowful condition, he became completely inactive. 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary 
on Act Four of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Snigdha-rnadhusudana. 



— akanksa-pundankaksah — 

(^Lencpntf Rictus GLpes 

Q^erse J 

3R^T HsJ^H ^R^TT: I 


aham iha nivasdmi ydhi rddham 

anunaya mad-vacanena cdnayethdh 
iti madhuripund sakhi niyuktd 

svayam idam etya punar jagdda rddham 


hen Krsna heard the moving account of Radha's pitiful condition 
from her intimate friend, he suggested, "I will wait here. You 
should go to Sri Radha, pacify her with my humble appeal and 

then bring her here." Engaged thus by Madhuripu Krsna, that sakhi approached 

Radha and spoke the following words. 


Sri Radha's intense agony of separation has been described in Act Four. When 
Krsna heard from the sakhi of Radha's dire suffering, he considered himself 
to be an offender. He felt both ashamed and also apprehensive. Although he 
was eager to meet with his eternal beloved, he did not go to her in person. He 
first expressed his regret before her sakhi and then sent her to pacify Radha's 
pique with soothing words of conciliation. He instructed the sakhi, "Humbly 
supplicate Sri Radha on my behalf. Devise a way to make her happy somehow 
or other and then bring her here. I will wait right here on the Yamuna riverside 
until she comes." After being instructed in this way, the sakhi went to inform 
Radha of the news. 

An ardent longing (dkdnksd) to meet his eternal lover, Sri Radha, had awak- 
ened within Krsna's heart. Hence the title of Act Five, Akdnksa-pundarikdksa. 


QS/f ^§)ita-$0vinda 

The name Pundarlkaksa, meaning "lotus-eyed one", attracts the readers' 
attention to Krsna's supremely enchanting eyes, which are also compared to red 
lotus flowers in the Vedas, tasya yathd pundarikam evam evdksini. 
chanda of this verse is puspitdgrd. 



Qfbong JO 


The musical mode is desivaradi raga. The rhythm is rupaka tala. 

A heroine, with beautiful hair like an angel of heaven, decorates her 
hands with bangles and her ears with devapuspa flowers. When she 
fans her beloved with a yak-tail whisk and enjoys delightful pastimes^ 
with him, at that time it is appropriate to introduce desivaradi raga. 

^fe ^fcfcT rTcT fsrct eHMItfl II^T IRII 

? >~: 


vahati malaya-samlre madanam upanidhdya 
sphutati kusuma-nikare virahi-hrdaya-dalandya 

sakhi! sidati tava virahe vanamdli (refrain) (1) 


"My dear friend Radha, the Malaya breeze drifts along slowly, just to soak 
everyone in the mood for amour. Varieties of flowers are opening and tearing 
open the hearts of lonely lovers. At this provocative time of spring, passionate 
Krsna feels morose in separation from you." 


The sakhi informs Radha, "O friend, in this Vasanta season the gentle motion of 
the Malaya breeze gives pain to forlorn lovers. A multitude of flowers blossom 
to break their hearts by arousing romantic sentiments. Krsna is utterly dejected 
without you, so why not go to meet him?" 

By referring to Krsna as Vanamali, "he who wears a garland of forest 
flowers", the sakhi intimates that, "He is barely still alive. How does he live on? 
Only by wearing a garland made by your hands." 

O^erse 3 

dahati sisira-mayukhe maranam anukaroti 
patati madana-visikhe vilapati vikalataro 'ti 

sakhi! sidati tava virahe... (2) 


"The moonshine scorches him as he approaches the brink of death. His heart 
is pierced by flowers that fall from the trees like the arrows of Kamadeva. He 
bitterly laments his destitute condition." 



"The moonlight cannot cool Vanamali when he is afflicted with longing for you. 
He feels that death personified is directly present. Flames seem to be emanating 
from the moon and setting him ablaze. Krsna is behaving exactly like a person 
who is about to die. When leaves and flowers fall from the trees, he feels that 
Kamadeva is assaulting his heart with arrows. Krsna is reclining on a flower bed 
as if it were a bed of arrows, and he weeps, overwhelmed with grief." 

dhvanati madhupa-samuhe sravanam apidadhdti 
manasi valita-virahe nisi nisi rujam upaydti 

sakhi! sidati tava virahe... (3) 


"He covers his ears with his hands when he hears the humming of bumblebees. 
Every night he expects that he will attain your company, but he is disappointed. 
His infirmity increases as he goes on enduring the torture of separation day 
after day." 


"Although swarms of bumblebees are humming in all four directions, this 
sound is not pleasant for Krsna. Rather, it grates harshly against his ears, so 
he tries to block them with his hands. Every night he thinks that you are 
by his side, but when he realizes that you are not actually there, his sorrow 
intensifies. Consumed by loneliness, he is simply floundering. He tosses and 
turns incessantly when he lies down to rest." 

In this verse, the sakhi has described vipralambha-uddipana-vibhdva. 


vasati vipina-vitdne tyajati lalita-dhdma 
luthati dharani-sayane bahu vilapati tava nama 

sakhi! sidati tava virahe... (4) 


"He has abandoned his own charming bed chamber to reside in the forest. 
Instead of living comfortably at home, he rolls about on the ground, repeatedly 
calling out your name, 'Radha! Radha!'" 

The sakhi says, "Radha, in separation from you, Sri Krsna has given up residence 
in his own delightful abode. He prefers to stay under the canopy of the jungle. 
He no longer sleeps on a bed. He lies on the ground where he spends the whole 
night rolling about and calling your name, 'Radha! Radha!'" 

O^erse 6 

bhanati kavi-jayadeve viraha-vilasitena 
manasi rabhasa-vibhave harir udayatu sukrtena 

sakhi! sidati tava virahe... (5) 


This song of Sri Jayadeva is full of Krsna's anxiety of separation. As a result 
of the piety infused by this song, those who recite it attain an unsurpassed 
immersion in the pastimes of separation. May Sri Krsna manifest within their 


The poet Sri Jayadeva says that the reciters and audience of the tenth song, 
entitled Garudapada, will accumulate immense piety (sukrti). Consequently 


Sri Hari's separation pastimes will enrich their hearts with sustained enthusiasm. 
May Bhagavan appear in the hearts of those who ardently long for rasa. 

This poem may also be sung in keddra raga. 

Krsna is Radha's prananatha - she feels that his lotus feet should be wor- 
shipped with the lamp of ten million of her own pranas. Therefore, as soon as 
she heard about his state of lamentation, she swooned and fell to the ground 
unconscious. Then her sakhl became silent; she could not speak another word. 
For this reason, this song has been completed in only five verses. 

Q^erse 7 

tj$ z^T WJ r5RT <fdM<}<miRdl: ffem 

cUotffd IIV9II 

purvam yatra samam tvayd rati-pater asaditah siddhayas 

tasminn eva nikunja-manmatha-mahd-tirthe punar mddhavah 

dhydyams Warn anisarh japann api tavaivdldpa-mantrdvaltm 
bhuyas tvat-kuca-kumbha-nirbhara-partrambhdmrtam vdnchati 


"In a great place of pilgrimage - a secluded forest bower - Madhava previously 
attained the perfections (siddhis) of Kamadeva, in order to fulfil your cherished 
desires to embrace. He always meditates on you in that sacred place to 
attain those siddhis. Constantly uttering the mantra of his previous romantic 
conversations with you, he makes a wish to attain the nectar of liberation in the 
deep embrace of your pitcher-like breasts." 


Thereafter, the sakhl sprinkled the refreshing water of Krsna's qualities upon 
Radha to bring her back to consciousness. Then she began to describe Radha as 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


a heroine who embarks on a journey to meet with her lover (abhisdrikd ndyika). 
She wants to please Radha by convincing her that Madhava's heart seeks refuge 
in her alone. 

"O Radha, in Cupid's sacred abode, a secluded grove, Madhava attained the 
great mystic powers of kdma, such as the nectar of kissing and embracing you. 
He desires to attain those same siddhis again today 

"The firm embrace of your pitcher-like breasts is nectar and the water of that 
sacred pilgrimage place (mahd-tirthd) is also nectar. He is staying in Kamadeva's 
maha-tirtha, meditating on your form and qualities. 

"Day and night he utters the mantra of his bygone romantic conversations 
with you. A mystic perfection is only attained by chanting a mantra and 
meditating in a secluded place before a deity. Krsna wants to attain kdma- 
siddhi in your presence in the form of your satisfaction in the kdma-ttrtha of the 
secluded forest groves. You are the deity of the pleasure grove. Your amorous 
repartee has become the mantra to attain kdma-siddhi. By this mantra, he 
wants to attain ambrosia in the form of tightly embracing your highly protruding 
pitcher-like breasts." 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and kdvyalinga alankdra. 




Q&ong 11 

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Q^erse 8 

rati-sukha-sdre gatam abhisdre madana-manohara-vesam 

na kuru nitambini gamana-vilambanam anusara tarn hrdayesam 

dhlra-samlre yamund-tlre vasati vane vanamali 

(refrain) (1) 


"Vanamali Krsna is adorned with a garland of forest flowers and his hands are 
always restless to inflict pain upon the gopts' breasts. He is currently waiting in 
a forest bower on the gentle Malaya-windswept shore of the Yamuna. O young 
woman with voluptuous hips, Krsna is waiting in the appointed meeting place, 
which is a perfect setting for lovemaking. He is dressed in the most fascinating 
attire, exactly like the god of sensuality. Go and meet with the darling of your 
heart at once. You should not delay any longer." 


Encouraging Radha to embark on her way to meet Krsna, the sakhi says, 
"O young woman with excellent broad hips! Your pace is already slowed down 
by the weight of your hips, so now there is no need to procrastinate any further 
and be late for your tryst. Go swiftly so that you will reach the appointed 
meeting place shortly after Krsna's arrival. Therein you will find the essence 
of sensual euphoria. The owner of your heart, Vanamali Krsna, dressed like 
Madana, has already arrived and he is anxiously looking out for your arrival." 

What is the speciality of that meeting place? 

"There is a vetasi forest on the bank of Yamuna, where the slowly drifting 
air has almost become stationary. Though the forest is dense and isolated, this 
gentle breeze is so pleasant at the time of lovemaking. Krsna is dressed for love 
and he has gone for abhisdra." 

To set out for a rendezvous on a moonlit night, after decorating and dressing 
appropriately for the occasion, is called abhisdra. 


A>ct (^five 

"Without the slightest delay, go at once and meet with Vanamah in that 
secluded forest bower." 

QPerse 9 

ndma-sametam krta-sanketam vddayate mrdu-venum 
bahu manute nanu te tanu-sangata-pavana-calitam apt renum 

dhira-samtre yamund-tire... (2) 


"O Radha, he is softly playing his flute, as if calling your name. He considers 
himself immensely fortunate to be touched by so many dust particles that have 
first touched your body. As they come to him on the breeze, he receives them 
with the utmost honour." 


The sakhl is assuring Radha, "If you have no faith in my words, then just listen 
to the sound of Krsna's flute coming from that very place. The flute is singing 
your name. It is the signal by which Krsna is calling you to meet him and also 
showing you the way to get there. If you are doubtful and think, 1 will definitely 
be cheated when I arrive. He must have gone there to meet another lover,' then 
your doubt is unfounded because he even considers the grains of sand raised 
by your feet to be valuable jewels. He receives them with great respect as they 
come to him on the breeze." 


O^erse JO 

patati patatre vicalati patre sankita-bhavad-upaydnam 
racayati sayanam sacakita-nayanam pasyati tava panthdnam 

dhira-samire yamund-tire. . . (3) 


"As Krsna joyfully makes the bed, he experiences many internal visions. When 
a bird landing on a tree rustles the leaves and makes the slightest sound, Krsna 
glances with startled eyes along the path of your expected arrival." 


The sakhi informs Radha, "As soon as an insignificant rustling sound comes 
from falling leaves, movements of the air or birds coming and going in the 
trees, Krsna is filled with anticipation: 'Perhaps Radha is coming.' With joyful 
enthusiasm, he becomes busy in quickly decorating the bed and he glances 
towards the path of your expected arrival with startled eyes." 

Q^erse 11 

mukharam adhiram tyaja manjiram ripum iva kelisu lolam 
cala sakhi kunjam satimira-punjam stlaya nila-nicolam 

dhira-samire yamund-tire. . . (4) 

"Sakhi, go! Move in the direction of that kuhja. Take off these dangerous 
enemies, your ankle-bells. They talk loudly when you walk and they shake 
when you enjoy union. Put on this dark blue garment." 


The sakhi says, "O Radha, the appropriate time for abhisdra has come because 
it is dark. Abhisdrikd heroines meet their lovers in the dark. So set off for that 


secret forest grove in the darkness. My dear friend, remove these ankle-bells. 
They are your enemies because they are so restless. They inform others by 
making a noise wherever you walk and they also become talkative during your 
love-play. Like enemies, they open their mouths without understanding the 
nature of the occasion. These ankle-bells are unfavourable for the attainment 
of your desired perfection. Now put on your blue clothes. The veil of this blue 
garment will make your fair complexion become one with the darkness (or one 
with Syama) and conceal your journey." 

Q^erse J 2 

urasi murdrer upahita-hdre ghana iva tarala-baldke 
tadid ivaplte rati-viparite rdjasi sukrta-vipdke 

dhtra-samire yamund-tire... (5) 


"O Radha, your complexion is yellow like a flash of lightning. You will manifest 
the beauty of a restless and crooked streak of lightning upon a dark cloud when 
the result of your pious activities culminates in making love upon Krsna's chest, 
which is decorated with a necklace of jewels." 

Q^erse 13 

vigalita-vasanam parihrta-rasanam ghataya jaghanam apidhdnam 
kisalaya-sayane pankaja-nayane nidhim iva harsa-nidhdnam 

dhtra-samire yamund-tire... (6) 


"O blue lotus-eyed Radha, be naked and without your waist-chain. Establish the 
treasured jewel of your thighs, the embodiment of your lover's joyful fulfilment, 
on a bed of freshly sprouted leaves." 


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In the previous verse, the sakht awakened Radha's impatience for viparita- 
rati, union in which the heroine plays the dominant role and actively sports in 
the upper position. Now, in this verse, the sakht arouses Radha's eagerness to 
experience the love-play actively performed by Krsna. "O Radha, your eyes are 
as captivating as lotus flowers. When you see how Krsna is ten million times 
more ravishing than the god of passionate love, the cloth that covers your hips 
will slip off by itself. The tiny bells attached to your waist-belt will be cast aside. 
Then you should situate the receptacle of bliss, the arrangement for Sri Krsna's 
happiness, this treasured jewel of your loins, on the flower bed made by Krsna." 

Q^erse 1% 

harir abhimdnt rajanir iddnim iyam apiydti virdmam 
kuru mama vacanam satvara-racanam puraya madhuripu-kdmam 

dhtra-samire yamund-ttre... (7) 


"Now Sri Krsna is being stubborn. The last period of the night is about to pass, 
so accept my advice. Go at once, without further delay, and fulfil the desires of 
Krsna, the enemy of Madhu." 


The sakht says, "Krsna has a mind of his own." The implied meaning is, "Krsna's 
heart and mind are at odds with each other. He is trying very hard to appease 
you, so do not be worried that he will meet with anyone else. In regard to 
his being headstrong, it is remarkable that, just to protect his own dignity, he 
could not come to you, and on the other hand, he also cannot abandon you. 
Whatever you have to do later, why not do it now? The night is passing and the 
opportunity to meet will be lost. So accept my advice - go to Krsna immediately 
and fulfil his desires." 


O^erse IS 

sri-jayadeve krta-hari-seve bhanati parama-ramanlyam 
pramudita-hrdayam harim ati-sadayam namata sukrta-kamanlyam 

dhlra-samlre yamuna-tlre. . . (8) 


O saints! Krsna is exuberant, causelessly merciful, exceptionally sweet, virtuous 
and adorned with all desirable qualities. Offer obeisances to him with a joyful 
heart by reciting this song of Sri Jayadeva, the composer of the most enchanting 
poetry and the servant of Sri Hari. 


The poet Sri Jayadeva concludes, "O devotees of Bhagavan, a person who 
remains eternally absorbed in the service of Krsna has composed this endearing 
conversation. Therefore Krsna is eternally pleased with it. May you all offer 
obeisances with joyful hearts to the lovable Sri Krsna, who is an ocean of 
mercy. He becomes the object of everyone's desires by granting them their own 
individual sphurti, or internal vision of his delightful pastimes." 


Q^erse 16 

vikirati muhuh svdsdn dsdhpuro muhur tksate 
pravisati muhuh kunjam gunjan muhur bahu tdmyati 

racayati muhuh sayydm parydkulam muhur tksate 
madana-kadana-kldntah kdnte priyas tava vartate 


"O impassioned woman, your beloved Krsna is waiting for you in the hidden 
chamber of a kunja and he is burning with amorous desire. He draws long 
breaths and looks around with startled eyes. Repeatedly lamenting in indistinct 
words, he comes out of the bower of flowering vines and then returns again 
feeling disappointed. Then he continues to arrange and rearrange the flower 
bed and glance towards the path of your expected arrival." 


In different ways, Radha's friend is urging her to meet with Krsna by informing 
her of his condition. "Krsna is unhappy without you because he feels the pain 
of unfulfilled kdma. 'You should have been here by now,' he thinks, and taking 
deep breaths, he lets out long sighs of disappointment. Sometimes he steps 
outside the kunja and looks around expectantly in all directions hoping to 
see the direction from which you might be coming. Then he enters the kunja 
again, thinking, 'Have you already come here and hidden yourself somewhere? 
Sometimes I go outside, sometimes I go back inside. Why should I do this again 
and again?' He mutters different things to himself as he ponders over the cause 
of your absence. 'She has not come. Why not? Perhaps she has stopped on the 
way for some reason or perhaps she is afraid. Anyway, all this guesswork and 


speculation is useless. She will definitely come.' When this conviction arises, he 
begins to prepare the bed." 

The word kadana implies that Krsna thinks, "She will definitely come 
because of her ever-fresh and increasing love for me." Therefore, he looks out 
for her arrival with renewed optimism. 

This verse includes dipaka alankdra. The chanda is harini. 

'll^KW TRtT^T ^T fPT W cFT: +IKHIH I 

rF*f£ few fec4J«HH<Hl TRTtvSf^RTTT^nT: II ^V9 II 

tvad-vdmyena samam samagram adhund tigmdmsur astam gato 
govindasya manorathena ca samam prdptam tamah sdndratdm 

kokdndm karuna-svanena sadrsi dirghd mad-abhyarthand 

tan-mugdhe viphalam vilambanam asau ramyo 'bhisdra-ksanah 


"Along with your contrary mood, the sun has also set. Along with Krsna's desire, 
the darkness has also intensified. Like the continuous crying of the lonely 
cakravdka bird, who laments in pathetic tones during the night, my request has 
also become futile. O bewildered one, I have been pleading with you for a very 
long time. Now it is useless to delay any longer. The delightful time for abhisdra 
has arrived." 


"O Radha, this is a suitable time for you to go to your beloved. Helplessly 
impelled by your contrary nature, you were indignant and refused to go 
anywhere. But now your pique has gone down along with the sun, so there are 
no obstacles to impede your tryst. As the density of the night's darkness grew, 


so did Govinda's ardent desire for your love. At night, the male and female 
cakravdka birds are distanced from each other, so they too let out long pitiful 
cries of agony due to excessive feelings of separation. Like the sustained cries of 
the cakravdka birds, my requests for you to meet with Krsna have gone in vain. 
O naive girl, do not miss this opportunity. Now is the optimal time for abhisdra. 
The darkness is impenetrable. Your dearmost one is eager for you. Now do not 
delay on the pretext of dressing and decorating yourself. Do it quickly." 
This verse features sahokti alankdra and sdrdula-vikridita chanda. 

3TT*^NI<*H xPcRT^T HfelUfelKH WItM- 
TTtlften^T ^TOIHI<H TrfR^n^T sftrRTh I 

O v3 v3 

dslesdd anu cumbandd anu nakhollekhdd anu svdntaja- 
prodbodhdd anu sambhramdd anu ratdrambhdd anuprttayoh 

anyartham gatayor bhraman militayoh sambhdsanair jdnator 
dampatyor iha ko na ko na tamasi vrtdd-vimisro rasah 


"When a hero and heroine search for each other in the dense darkness, the 
hero meets with another heroine and his heroine meets with another hero by 
mistake. Only when they begin to converse do they realize their error. After 
recognizing each other, they embrace. At first they kiss and then they begin 
to mark each other with their fingernails. When they become completely 
overwhelmed by erotic desires and absorbed in passion, they lose their 
composure and excitedly begin their love-play. After making love, both will 
feel an astonishing type of affection. What sort of rasa, mixed with feelings 
of shame, will not be attained in this darkness? Therefore, O beautiful one, 


go! As quickly as possible, go to your sylvan love chamber. Are such excellent 
opportunities ever to be neglected?" 


The sakhl is tempting Radha. "O friend, Radhika, when you arrive there and 
meet with Krsna, you will discover a variety of fascinating amorous games." 
By these words, she increases Radha's eagerness and expresses the cherished 
desire of both of them. 

"When darkness falls, a hero and a heroine set off to find their respective 
lovers but meet with each other instead. At that time they realize the taste of 
erotic ecstasies mixed with feelings of shame (vridd-misrita srngdra-rasa) . Then 
what rasa remains to be attained? All types of rasa are incorporated in this 
vridd-misrita rasa." 

The word bhramdt is interpreted thus, "They meet while wandering in the 
direction of the kunja and come to recognize each other only after conversing 
together in the dense darkness. Alternatively, they may have set out with other 
purposes and then met by chance along the way. They recognize each other in 
the course of conversing by the broken articulation that ensues sdttvika-bhdva. 
As soon as they understand the actual situation, they suddenly embrace, but 
both still remain afraid that someone might see them. Therefore bhaydnaka- 
rasa emerges, of which fear is the sthdyibhdva. Although the hero is repeatedly 
forbidden to do so, he kisses and bites his beloved by force. Furthermore, he 
laments, 'Have I gone to so much trouble for nothing? Even if she forbids me 
a hundred thousand times, I will not accept no for an answer.' Then his heart 
melts with compassion and he attains karuna-rasa. 

"When they begin to scratch each other with their nails to stimulate their 
sensual appetite, the sthdyibhdva is utsdha (resolve). 

"Now they are on the verge of making love. In this love-play, they experience 
the happiness of vismaya-pradhdna adbhuta-rasa (astonishment). When kdma 
has arisen, they indulge in varieties of sensual sports as they laugh and speak 
joking words to each other. While engrossed in rati-kridd, both feel hdsya-rasa 
(humour). Finally, when their lovemaking is fully accomplished and they feel 


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mutual bliss, then they realize the sweetness of the supreme emperor of all 
mellows, rasa-raja srngara-rasa. 

"In this way, when a hero and heroine meet unintentionally in the dark, at 
first they do not recognize each other. When they do, both become ashamed, 
but they do not blame each other or become angry because both are at fault. 
Then, in the dense darkness, they experience all rasas mixed with shame. 
Radha, you will feel ashamed, 'Oh, we have just met, so why have we suddenly 
become immersed in such deep srngdra-rasaV" 

Cauryarata krarna, the entire sequence of secret sexual enjoyment, has been 
explained by Bharata Muni: 


sighratva-maithunam ananta-sukha-prabodham 

pritis tato pi rasa-bhavanam eva kdryarn 
evam nitdntanaturdh suciram ramante 

The alankdras called dipaka, samuccaya and bhrdntimdn are notable in this 
verse. The chanda is sdrdula-vikridita. 

^g%^*FT: MW-H <dl*jO«J $dl«idl*i. WVK " 

sa-bhaya-cakitarh vinyasyantirh drsarh timire pathi 
prati-taru muhuh sthitva mandam paddni vitanvatim 

katham api rahah prdptdm angair ananga-tarangibhih 
sumukhi subhagah pasyan sa Warn upaitu krtdrthatdm 



a O beautiful young woman! Timidly looking around with quickly moving 
glances, standing close to each tree, then again gradually advancing step by step 
along the dark path, you will somehow arrive at a secluded place. When the 
greatly fortunate Krsna sees you agitated by the waves of kdma, his life will be 


"Attaining you means everything to Krsna." Alluding to this, the sakhi tells 
Radha, "O stunningly beautiful one, when you set out from here, you will 
proceed with great caution as you walk upon that dark path through the dense 
darkness. It is only natural to be afraid in the dark. By chance, someone might 
see you, so it is also natural to be alarmed. 'I am actually going to the trysting 
place to meet with Krsna in complete darkness.' This will be astonishing for you, 
and at the same time, you will also doubt, 'When I arrive there, will I meet with 
Krsna or not?' Your body quickly tires from the heavy burden of your breasts 
and hips. You become too languid to walk quickly, so stop and wait beneath 
every tree before going on. Krsna will consider his life successful when he sees 
you arrive at the appointed meeting place in this enfeebled condition, with the 
waves of Ananga playing on your body. Then he will begin to plunge into the 
turbulent waves of excitement." 

This verse is embellished by the alankara called atisayokti. The chanda is 



Q&rf (^Qjita-tjavinda 

Q^erse 20 

^RT^FT^H^>g<qg c^t ^^N^T: II ^o II 

rddhd-mugdha-mukhdravinda-madhupas trailokya-mauli-sthali- 
nepathyocita-nlla-ratnam avani-bhdrdvatdrdntakah 

svacchandam vraja-sundari-jana-manas-tosa-pradosodayah 
kamsa-dhvamsana-dhumaketur avatu tvdrh devaki-nandanah 


He is the bumblebee who drinks the honey of Radha's lotus face. He is the 
sapphire ornament of Vrndavana, which is itself the crest-jewel of the three 
worlds. Like nightfall, he is naturally competent to satisfy the beautiful dairy 
maidens of Vraja. He annihilates the aggressive empiricists who overburden the 
earth. He is like the star Dhumaketu, foreboding destruction for Karhsa. May 
that Sri Krsna, the son of Devaki, protect you all. 


After describing Radha-Krsna's emotions during separation, the poet portrays 
the srngdra-rasa evoked by their meeting. In this verse, Sri Jayadeva bestows a 
benediction upon the reciters and audience of this poem. 

Mugdha-mukhdravinda-madhupah - Radha's face is like a lotus flower. 
As a bumblebee frequents the lotus flower to drink the nectar of its pollen, 
similarly Krsna tastes the sweetness of Radha's lotus face. Therefore he has been 
addressed as mugdha-madhupa, the bewildered bumblebee. This part of the 
verse indicates their pastimes of meeting. 

Trailokya-mauli-sthali-nepathyocita-nila-ratnah - He is a sapphire upon the 
crown of the three worlds; that is, he beautifies the best places in the entire 
creation. The phrase nepathyocita means "a befitting ornament". 


Avani-bhdrdvantdrdntakah - When demons such as Sisupala, Dantavakra 
and Kamsa took birth to increase the burden of the earth, Krsna appeared 
to bring about their destruction. The word antaka means yama, or death 
personified. Krsna is just like death for those who are a burden on the earth. 

Svacchandam vraja-sundari-jana-manas-tosodayah - Krsna satisfies the 
hearts of the beautiful gopis of Vraja like twilight. As the moon rises at twilight 
and satisfies women by providing them the opportunity to meet with their 
lovers, similarly, without the slightest restraint, Krsna delights the hearts of the 
attractive gopis and fulfils their desires. 

Kamsa- dhvamsana-dhumaketuh - Krsna, the destroyer of the demon named 
Kamsa, is like the comet Dhumaketu. Dhumaketu is one particular star. When 
this star appears, the imminent destruction of the king is considered inevitable. 
Similarly, the descent of Krsna forebodes the destruction of Kamsa. 

Another meaning of dhumaketu is "one who illuminates like the sun". 
Sri Krsna is also the Dhumaketu that spells the pacification of Sri Radha's kama. 

The etymology of the word pradosa is pragato dosddayah. 

This verse includes the alankaras called slesa, luptopama, parikara and 
varnopama. The chanda is sdrdula-vikridita and the riti is pdncdli. 

Act Five has described abhisdrikd, the condition of a heroine who embarks 
for a secret tryst. The lotus-eyed Krsna is ready and waiting for the arrival of 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 
Act Five of Sri Gita-govinda, ^n^ferfAkahksa-pundarlkaksa. 


A>ct Q&w 

— dhrsta-vaikunthah — 

^he Audacious Autocrat 

Q^erse 1 
d^iRd 'flfa^ hhRmh^ wit W II * II 

<^/z<2 ^m gantum asaktdrh ciram anuraktam latd-grhe drstvd 
tac-caritam govinde manasija-mande sakhi prdha 


adha was sitting in a chamber of flowering vines. When the sakhi saw 

Radha powerless to go to Krsna despite her being fervently desirous 

| of his company, she described Radha's condition to Govinda, who 

was himself inflicted physically and psychologically with transformations of 

intense amorous desire. 


Although Radha was hankering for Krsna, she could not go to him because she 
was too debilitated from the trauma of separation. Seeing this, the sakhi left 
Radhika there in the chamber of flowering creepers and went to inform Krsna 
about Radha's predicament. 

Krsna has sat down in a state of depression, suffering from frustrated 
passion. Therefore his movements have become slow. The purport of latd-grha 
is sanketa-sthala, the appointed meeting place. 

The chanda of this verse is dryd. 








Scene Twelve 





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Act Qfrise 

pasyati disi disi rahasi bhavantam 
tad-adhara-madhura-madhuni pibantam 

natha hare! sidati radha vasa-grhe (refrain) (1) 

"O Hari, you are her only refuge. Sri Radha is sinking to the depths of despair in 
the trysting place. She is in agony. In all directions and in the core of her heart, 
she sees you who are so skilful in drinking the sweet nectar of her lips." 


The sakhi says, "Radha has become listless. She is sitting alone in the trysting 
place. By the intense power of her meditation, she sees you everywhere. Her 
subjective experience is that all directions are krsnamayt, nothing but Krsna." 

Another meaning is, "In that chamber of flowering vines, she lovingly drinks 
through her ears endearing words about your character and activities. It is the 
nature of long-standing prema that the body and mind do not work together in 
harmony. The mind wants to do something, but the body will not assist. This is 
why she becomes inert." 

Q^erse 3 

tvad-abhisarana-rabhasena valanti 
patati padani kiyanti calantl 

natha hare! sidati... (2) 


"As soon as Radha is enthused about embarking on a lover's journey and begins 
to make the appropriate arrangements, she takes a few steps and falls down." 



"Radha impetuously stands up to decorate and prepare herself for abhisdra, but 
she is so enfeebled in the wake of separation that after taking a few steps, she 
falls helplessly to the ground unconscious." 

Q^erse % 

jivati param iha tava rati-kalayd 

ndtha hare! stdati... (3) 


"She puts on bangles, a sash, rings, armlets, necklaces and other ornaments 
made of spotless white lotus-fibres and freshly sprouted leaves. She is living 
only in the hope of enjoying union with you." 


"Radha has surrounded herself with the fibres of lotus stems and freshly 
spouted leaves to relieve the burning sensation of kdrna. Although she is feeble 
and emaciated, she has held on to her life-airs until now only because she feels 
happiness in the hope of enjoying amorous pastimes with you. Even now, the 
ways of your love reside in her life-airs and all the methods of your prema are 
resonating upon her heart-strings. Her total absorption in sensual union with 
you is the only cause of her continued existence." 

Q^erse S 

muhur avalokita-mandana-ltld 
madhuripur aham iti bhdvana-stld 

ndtha hare! stdati... (4) 


Act Qfrise 


"She thinks, 'I am Madhuripu,' and looks repeatedly at your ornaments." 


"O Krsna, her prana has become one with yours. Imagining that, 'I am 
Madhusudana. I am Radha's prana, Sri Krsna,' she identifies herself with you 
and becomes just like you. She adorns herself while thinking, These ornaments, 
this crown, these earrings and this garland of forest flowers are worthy of being 
worn when I enjoy amorous union with Radha.' Radha rejects all the ornaments 
suitable for young women. In the agony of separation from you, she passes her 
time dressing in ornaments suitable for a male lover and looking just like you. 
Then, after becoming Madhava, she gazes with wonderment upon Radha's 

tvaritam upaiti na katham abhisaram 
harir iti vadati sakhtm anuvdram 

ndtha hare! sidati... (5) 


"She repeatedly inquires from her confidante, 'Sakhi, why is Sri Krsna not 
coming quickly for our rendezvous?'" 


The sakht informs Krsna, "Sometimes she comes to me and asks repeatedly, 
'Why doesn't Sri Hari hurry up and meet me here in the appointed place?'" 


slisyati cumbati jaladhara-kalpam 
harir upagata iti timiram analpam 

natha hare! sidati... (6) 

"When she sees the dense darkness that resembles a raincloud, she embraces 
and kisses it thinking, 'Oh, Hari has come.'" 


"When she sees the dense, blackish-blue darkness that appears to be a cloud 
about to burst, she thinks, 'Krsna, you have come.' Then she embraces that 
lovely darkness to her breast and begins to kiss it." 

Q^erse 8 

bhavati vilambini vigalita-lajja 
vilapati roditi vasakasajja 

natha hare! sidati... (7) 

"When Radha returns to external consciousness and realizes that you have still 
not arrived, she loses all bashfulness and begins to weep out loud." 


Radha is portrayed here as vasakasajja nayika. When she realizes, "I have not 
embraced Krsna and I am not kissing him. This is just the dense darkness," 
she becomes ashamed of her behaviour and begins to weep. Her deranged 
condition is such that she mistakes the nearby expanse of darkness to be her 
dearest beloved because of its colour. Then she begins to lament, "Why has my 
most beloved one not come by now?" 


Act Qfrise 

Vasakasajja - The vasakasajja nayika is a heroine who arrives at the 
appointed grove and waits for her hero with intense eagerness. She personally 
decorates the grove, makes a flower bed and sends messengers to the hero. 

QFerse 9 

sri-jayadeva-kaver idam uditam 
rasika-janam tanutdm ati-muditam 

natha hare! sidati... (8) 


May this song of the poet Jayadeva awaken abundant jubilation in the hearts of 
those who are expert in relishing rasa. 


Sri Jayadeva says, "A sakhi has sung the glories of Radha's love herein. May her 
words bestow bliss upon the expert devotees whose hearts are infused with the 
romantic mellow." 

This twelfth song portrays the vipralambha-bhava of srngara-rasa. The 
alankara is samuccaya, the hero is satha nayaka and the heroine is a distraught 
vasakasajja nayika. 



Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavinda 

QPerse JO 


vipula-pulaka-pdlih sphita-sltkdram antar- 
janita-jadima-kdku-vydkulam vydharanti 

tava kitava vidhdydmanda-kandarpa-cintdm 
rasa-jaladhi-nimagnd dhydna-lagnd mrgdkst 


"O cheater! Covered with severe horripilation, stunned from within and drawing 
her breath with pitiful groans, the doe-eyed Radhika is absorbed in intense 
bodily transformations arising from kdma for you. Somehow she holds on to her 
life-air while being submerged in the ocean of prema-msa." 


Painting a picture of Radha's insane craving for union (premonmddd) , the sakhi 
says, "O cunning cheater! You treacherous rogue! The doe-eyed Radhika is 
absorbed in a state of meditation as she sinks into the love-ocean of embracing 
and uniting with you. It seems to her that you are holding her in an embrace. 
Therefore every pore of her skin is thrilled with intense pleasure. She suddenly 
draws her breath and murmurs indistinctly as she becomes almost senseless. 
When the impetuous frenzy of her internal kdma subsides, she sinks into the 
ocean of bliss." 

This verse features mdlini chanda and rasavad alankdra. 


Act Qfrise 

O^erse 11 

3^5rT*Rnf ^FfrfrT sff?T: ^sfa UsJlRfrl 

W ?^t qf^If^ fadH<} ^F2lf f^TT SZTFrfrT I 

oiimTblPM f^RT ^RT cWdd^NI f^TT ^rfrT II \\ II 

angesv dbharanam karoti bahusah patre pi sancdrini 
praptam Warn parisankate vitanute sayydm ciram dhydyati 

ity dkalpa-vikalpa-talpa-racand-sankalpa-llld-sata- 
vydsaktdpi vind tvayd vara-tanur naisd nisdrh nesyati 


"The limbs of Sri Radha's body are incomparably attractive. She decorates them 
with ornaments many times. When leaves rustle, she is filled with expectation, 
thinking, 'Oh, you have come.' She makes a soft bed for you and when you are 
late she feels acute pain. Thus, although she is occupied in various pastimes 
such as decorating herself, feeling apprehension, making the bed, speaking 
loving words and fixing her resolve, she still cannot pass this night in separation 
from you." 


The sakhi tells Krsna about the mental conditions, dysfunctional behaviour 
and endeavours of the vdsakasajjd. "Although Radha enjoys your amorous 
love through meditation, she feels deficient without attaining direct union with 
you. O Madhava, my most beautiful friend decorates her elegant limbs with 
ornaments to attract you in expectation of your imminent arrival. When the 
wind rustles the leaves on a tree, she presumes that you are coming. When you 
do not appear, she reassures herself, 'He will definitely come', and prepares a 
bed of freshly sprouted leaves. She is lost in thoughts of you. Sometimes she 
looks outside to see if you are coming. When you are late, she becomes utterly 
dejected. Thus although Radha remains occupied in various activities such 


as adorning herself, expecting your arrival and preparing a bed with the firm 
resolve that you must be on the way, she still cannot endure the night without 

This verse features sardula-vikridita chanda and samuccaya alankdra. 

fom visrdmyasi krsna-bhogi-bhavane bhdndira-bhumi-ruhe 
bhrdtar ydsi na drsti-gocaram itah sdnanda-nanddspadam 

rddhdyd vacanam tad adhvaga-mukhdn nanddntike gopato 
govindasya jayanti say am atithi-prdsastya-garbhd girah 


"When I was a guest in Sri Radha's home, she said to me, 'O brother, why are 
you resting at the foot of this bhdndira tree? A poisonous black serpent lives 
here. Get up and go to the delightful home of Nanda, which is visible just before 
you. Why don't you go there?'" On hearing these words of Radha from the lips 
of a pilgrim, Krsna thanked "him" in such a way that Sri Nanda Maharaja would 
not understand the inner mood of his statements. May Govinda's words of 
praise be victorious. 


To conclude Act Six, Sri Jayadeva bestows a blessing through the medium of 
this verse. The context is as follows. When Radha saw that her sakhi was late, 
she made an excuse to send another female envoy. That messenger disguised 
herself as a male pilgrim and approached Krsna in the evening twilight. The 
"pilgrim" gave Krsna a message from Radha indirectly informing him about a 


Act Qfrise 

secret tryst. Sri Jayadeva says, "May Govinda's words of praise to that pilgrim be 

What were Krsna's cryptic words concealing his intentions from his father, 
Sri Nanda Maharaja? Krsna may have confirmed his approval by repeating the 
pilgrim's message. "O brother, why are you lamenting here beneath this banyan 
tree that is the home of a black snake? Go inside the delightful house of Nanda. 
It is visible before you a little further ahead." 

Krsna-bhogi - "black snake"; or alternatively "Krsna, who enjoys union 
(sambhoga) with his beloved." 

When Sri Jayadeva says, "May Govinda's words of praise be victorious," he 
implies, "May Radha's wish be fulfilled." The word jay a also establishes Krsna's 
unparalleled excellence. 

Thus ends the Balabodhinl-prakasa commentary on 

Act Six of Sri GIta-govinda, entitled Dhrsta-vaikuntha, 

describing the vasakasajja nayika. 



^fW Q&even 


''Che dextrous divinity? 

QPerse J 

«3*MMId* ^T ^dtflo^HSfh I 

atrantare ca kulatd-kula-vartma-pdta- 
sanjdta-pdtaka iva sphuta-ldnchana-srih 

vrnddvanantaram adlpayad amsu-jdlair 
dik-sundan-vadana-candana-bindur induh 


rsna was absorbed in thoughts of Radha. In the meantime, the moon 
enhanced the beauty of Vrndavana with his gentle rays. The moon 
appeared like a drop of sandalwood paste on the lotus face of a 
beautiful newly married woman in the form of the eastern direction. His limbs 
bore a stain like the mark of tuberculosis on an unchaste woman when she 
strays from the path of social etiquette. 


Sri Jayadeva is describing the full moonrise because it demolishes the reluctance 
of contrary heroines. The poet says, "When Radha was burning in separation 
from Krsna, the rays of the full moon illuminated the forest of Vrndavana. 
The sinful reaction accrued by the moon for obstructing the path of unchaste, 
impassioned women is clearly evident from his deer-shaped mark." 

Alternatively, a The moon has decorated all directions with his effulgence. He 
wears his own ill-fame like a spot of sandalwood paste adorning the face of the 
beautiful woman, Purva-disa (the eastern direction personified)." 

Furthermore, "The moon has perfectly adorned the beautiful eastern horizon, 
just as a spot of sandalwood paste perfectly adorns the forehead of a beautiful 


Pdtaka iva - A person who obstructs the path of others is considered to 
be sinful. Unchaste ladies only have an opportunity to meet with their lovers 
at night. The moonlight creates an obstacle at that time by jeopardizing the 
secrecy of their movements. The reaction to this sin is evident from the moon's 
deer-shaped mark. 

From one perspective, the moon is considered to be stained by infamy, and 
from another, it is the ornament of the open directions. 

This verse includes rupaka and utpreksd alankdras. The chanda is vasanta- 

fe<fcdbfe*lGk4IM w MRdIM ^FTTt#: II 9 II 

prasarati sasadhara-bimbe vihita-vilambe ca mddhave vidhurd 
viracita-vividha-vildpam sdparitdpam cakdroccaih 


The moon had already risen to its zenith and Madhava was late. Therefore, 
afflicted by separation and loudly expressing her lamentation in various ways, 
Radha began to suffer the most intense agony. 


When the moon rose to the highest point, Radha's hopes that Madhava would 
surely come waned and the intense pain of separation increased. Describing 
Radha's remorse, the sakhi says, "Radha began to weep out loud in great 
distress, feeling completely helpless. The moon had expanded fully and 
Madhava had still not arrived. In utter despair, Radha burst into tears." 
This verse is in dryd chanda. 



; : 


The musical mode is mdlava rdga. The rhythm is j^ft' ^/^. 

^nfa i ?ffaw ^RW ^isDvHHcl^Hclfeldl ll^f^T II? II 
#T *W ^fiWM-HMSU^nicWM ll^fa to II tf II 


O^erse 3 

kathita-samaye pi harir ahaha na yayau vanam 
mama viphalam idam amalam api rupa-yauvanam 

yami he! kam iha saranam 
sakht-jana-vacana-vancitd (refrain) (1) 


"Alas, alas! My immaculate youth and beauty are all in vain because Hari has 
not come to the forest at the appointed time. I have been cheated by my friends, 
so to whom may I turn for shelter now?" 


Radha laments, "Sakhi, you said, 'I will go and bring him at once. Just wait 
here.' But even you have betrayed me. You said that you would return to this 
grove before moonrise, but now the moon has risen to its highest point in the 
sky. I have been deceived by your false words of reassurance. My impeccable 
youth and beauty are all worthless because if they had any value, he would 
definitely be here." 

The word ahaha (Alas! Alas!) indicates Radha's profound sorrow. The word 
he (Oh!) is used following a form of address. 

O^erse % 

yad-anugamandya nisi gahanam api silitam 
tena mama hrdayam idam asamasara-ktlitam 

yami he! kam iha... (2) 

"Alas! That very person, in pursuance of whom I have even entered this wild 
forest on such a dark night, is piercing my heart with arrows of sensuality. To 
whom may I turn for shelter?" 


A>ct Q&even 


Sri Radha says, "He whom I came to meet in this lonely, secluded jungle has 
driven the stake of lust into my heart, or a seed incantation (bija-mantrd) of 
kama has bound me with such a mystical spell that I do not have a position in 
any sphere." 

The word api (even) implies, "I had never done such a thing before." 

Q^erse S 

mama maranam eva varam ati-vitatha-ketana 
kim iha visahami virahanalam acetana 

ydmi he! kam iha... (3) 


"It is useless to maintain this body any longer. I should die at once. I am 
becoming senseless. How can I endure this intolerable fire of separation?" 


"I am ruined. How unsteady I am in separation from that person for whose 
loving union I am sitting in this deep forest in the dreadful darkness of 
night. I lost all composure and sense. Where can I go? It is better to die. How 
much separation can I tolerate? All signs of hope have proven false. My body 
is worthless, otherwise Hari would not neglect it in this way. I have acted 
courageously by coming here on my sakhl's words, but all my endeavours are in 
vain. It is useless to go on living." 


mam ahaha vidhurayati madhura-madhu-ydmini 
kdpi harim anubhavati krta-sukrta-kdmint 

ydmi he! kam iha... (4) 

"Oh, how unfortunate I am. This exceptionally sweet spring night makes 
me unsteady with the pain of loneliness. At a time like this it is certain that 
elsewhere some impassioned young woman is experiencing the highest hap- 
piness as she enjoys the fruit of her pious activities in the form of making love 
with Krsna." 


Expressing the terrible pain in the core of her heart, Radha says, "These rasa- 
laden nights of the spring season embody the highest happiness, yet they are 
torturing me. Conversely, some fortunate young woman is tasting the rapture of 
playfully making love with Krsna. He did not come here as promised because 
that seductress has bound him in the ropes of her love as he revels in amorous 
pastimes. How I must be lacking in pious activities. I am lamenting in the pain 
of separation and in the meantime, some other woman is feeling the happiness 
of passionate union with him." 

In the Visvakosa dictionary vidhura is defined as vikalatd, deficiency. 

Q^erse 7 

ahaha kalaydmi valayddi-mani-bhusanam 
hari-viraha-dahana-vahanena bahu-dusanam 

ydmi he! kam iha... (5) 


A>ct Q&even 


"Alas, alas! All my jewel-encrusted bangles and other ornaments are inflaming 
the fire of separation and inflicting unlimited misery. Therefore they also seem 
to be guilty." 

"Oh, sakM You have played a big trick on me. I have adorned my body with 
so many ornaments and decorated myself with flowers, freshly sprouted leaves 
and jewels. But they all seem to burn my body like flames in the tortuous fire 
of unfulfilled sensual desires in the absence of Hari. Now these ornaments 
are no longer ornaments. They have become curses, because the beauty and 
attire of a woman in love have but one fruit - her lover's glance. Alternatively, 
the value of ornaments is only realized when someone looks at you with 
love. Therefore these ornaments are not dear to me. Rather, they seem to be 
conspiring against me." 

O^erse 8 

kusuma-sukumdra-tanum atanu-sara-lilayd 
srag api hrdi hanti mam ati-visama-stlayd 

ydmi he! kam iha... (6) 


(To say nothing of my other ornaments) "Even this garland of forest flowers on 
my chest is inflicting terrible blows like the arrows of Cupid upon my body, 
which is more delicate than the softest flower blossoms." 


"O my beloved! What can I say about my other ornaments? The garland I 
wear upon my heart for your pleasure turns into a weapon of Kamadeva and 
steals my life-airs. It pierces my heart like an arrow of kdma and its blow is so 
damaging that my body, which is more delicate than a flower, cannot endure its 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


violence. When the body is covered with the cuts and wounds of arrows one 
feels an ordinary type of pain. But the pain of a heart broken by these arrows of 
kama is intolerable." 

QFerse 9 

aham iha nivasdmi na ganita-vana-vetasd 
smarati madhusudano mam api na cetasd 

ydmi he! kam iha... (7) 


"I fearlessly sit waiting for Krsna, even in the midst of this formidable cane 
forest. But how astonishing it is that Madhusudana does not remember me 
even once." 


Sri Radha expresses her humility by saying, "I believed in my sakhi's words 
about meeting with Sri Madhusudana. So I am sitting fearlessly in the depths of 
this spooky forest, but he is not concerned about me. His friendship is fickle. 
How amazing it is that the person for whom I am waiting in this dense forest 
does not remember me even once. Alas, this is simply my misfortune." 

O^erse JO 

vasatu hrdi yuvatir iva komala-kaldvatt 

ydmi he! kam iha... (8) 


As the qualities of a young woman, who is expert in all arts and whose body is 
soft and radiant, always shine within the heart of a young man, similarly may 


A>ct Q&even 

this delightful song of Sri Jayadeva, who is unconditionally surrendered at the 
lotus feet of Sri Krsna, always grace the hearts of the devotees. 


Sri Jayadeva says that his only protectors are the lotus feet of Sri Krsna. He has 
no other guardian. His poem is adorned with tender words and the arts of 
poetic pertinence. A beautiful woman reigns with splendour within the heart of 
her hero, especially if her body is tender and she is talented in the six arts that 
increase rasa, such as the use of ornaments and cosmetics. In the same way, 
may this poem find a place within the hearts of the devotees and bring them 
abundant joy. This is the cherished desire of the poet. 

Q^erse 11 

fl^dl^dH^cl^rtrtdl^vSfq' ±MHId: II « II 

tat kirn kdm api kdminim abhisrtah kith vd kald-kelibhir 

baddho bandhubhir andhakdrini vandbhyarne kim udbhrdmyati 

kdntah kldnta-mand mandg api pathi prasthdtum evdksamah 
sanketi-krta-manju-vanjula-latd-kunje piyan ndgatah 


"Sri Krsna is more dear to me than my own life. Why has he not come to the 
appointed chamber of blossoming vines? What is the mystery behind it? Did he 
go for a tryst with another passionate woman? Did he inadvertently allow the 
appointed time to pass in the joy of playing with his friends? Is he wandering 
around, unable to find this place in the terrible darkness cast by the shadow of 
this dense mass of trees? Is he so debilitated by feelings of separation from me 
that he cannot walk even a single step?" 


Beset with doubt, Radhika is pondering over possible reasons why Sri Krsna 
has not come. "Oh, what could be the cause of his absence?" Presenting her 
suspicions, Radha says, "This charming chamber of vetasa creepers was the 
appointed meeting place for us both, so what has become of him? Why is he 
not here? Did he go to meet with another heroine? How could his thirst for me 
be less than for her? How could he abandon me in a place like this to enjoy 
loving pastimes with someone else? It is not possible. Did his sportive and artful 
friends stop him from coming here by detaining him in the playing field? This 
is also not feasible. How could he forget the time for abhisdra? It seems that the 
crest-jewel of cunning tricksters cannot find me in this dense darkness, so he 
may still be searching for me. But how many times has he come to this forest to 
meet me? The path is well-known to him, so how could he forget the way? It is 
impossible. Could he be languishing so much in separation that he is unable to 
walk? Perhaps he is worrying, 'How will Radha feel after the moon has risen?'" 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and the alankdra called 

3T2TFT?TT *TTSJc|H*t1}u| 

*HI<Jh £!ic^d«l3 11^ II 

athdgatdm mddhavam antarena 

sakhlm iyarh viksya visdda-mukdm 
visankamdnd ramitam kaydpi 

jandrdanam drstavad etad aha 


A>ct Q&even 

When Radha saw her companion return without Madhava, her heart sank. 
Feeling apprehensive, Radha remained silent and began to conjecture, "Is 
Janardana enjoying love with another passionate woman?" 


Radha was pondering over the many possible reasons for Krsna's not coming to 
the trysting place. When she saw her friend return without Krsna, her emotions 
reached the peak of sensitivity for a separated mistress {vipralabdha nayika). 
Radha was rendered speechless by the intensity of her anguish and her friend 
also remained silent in a state of despair. Radha presumed, "She is silent and 
apathetic, because she has seen the son of the King of Vraja enjoying amorous 
pastimes with another woman. That's why she is not saying anything." 

Radha burst into tears. "Isn't that the meaning of janardana, 'one who likes 
to give pain to others'? Therefore he also gives pain to me." 

Vipralabdha nayika - Impelled by ever-increasing attachment, the lady-love 
arrives first at the prearranged meeting place and sends a messenger to her hero. 
However, by the will of providence the hero does not show up and the time for 
meeting passes. At this point, the heroine becomes a vipralabdha nayika. 

The chanda of this verse is upendra-vajra. 



The musical mode is vasanta rdga. The rhythm is yati tala. 
W^M-AFddfd^dd^ll I 

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gRMR^UMfrtdfacbNI | 
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sy^dfHMlfodfdcb-H^d^l ll^lfao \\%C II 
^H^rt*W|'*lT^M^Kl<l I 

A>ct Q&even 

O^erse 13 


kdpi madhuripund 

vilasati yuvatir adhika-gund (refrain) (1) 

"O sakhi, she is attired in clothes and ornaments suitable for an amorous battle. 
When she is absorbed in making love, her braid opens and the flowers fall from 
her undulating tresses, only to be crushed by their bodies. Some young woman, 
who is more qualified than I, is blissfully engaged in revelry with Madhuripu." 


With great apprehension, Radha says, "O sakhi, some beautiful young lover, 
dressed for sexual combat (kdma-sangrdma), is sporting with Madhuripu. While 
playing her love games, her tightly bound braid came loose and is now swinging 
to and fro. Thus the flowers that were woven in her hair have cascaded down." 

Madhuripu - "Krsna is the enemy of mddhurya. He does not approve of 
sweetness. Therefore he has neglected me to enjoy union with another young 

Yuvatir adhika-gund - "This lovely vraja-gopi is more qualified than I." But 
that is impossible. The vyangdrtha or suggested meaning is, "How amazing it 
is that a less qualified young woman is making love to him." This description 
alludes to viparita-rati, the congress in which the heroine makes love in the 
dominant role above her hero. 

Smara-samara - Sexual love has been called an erotic battle. In this amorous 
competition, intensely passionate thrusting causes the heroine's braid to open 
and the flowers woven therein to cascade down and scatter. 


kuca-kalasopari taralita-hdrd 

kdpi madhuripund... (2) 


"When Krsna deeply embraces her, she becomes bewildered by sensual 
agitation. She must be experiencing the bodily transformations beginning with 
the thrill of every pore of her skin and her necklace must be swinging to and fro 
on her waterpot-like breasts." 


Sri Radha conjectures about the activities of her attractive rival. Painting a 
vivid picture of her behaviour, she says, "That young woman must have felt 
the upsurge of various passionate bodily transformations such as horripilation 
arising from the embrace of Sri Krsna. Her necklace must be swinging upon 
her raised waterpot-like breasts." A necklace will be restless when a woman 
plays the active role in lovemaking. In other words, it is only possible during 

O^erse IS 


kdpi madhuripund... (3) 

"The beauty of her moonlike face must be enhanced by her curling locks of hair 
and her eyes must be blissfully closed out of an all-consuming greed to drink 
the nectar of Krsna's lips." 


A>ct Q&even 

"That charming lover's moonlike face must look even more beautiful with her 
locks of hair moving to and fro. She must be drinking the nectar of Krsna's lips 
as they make love. Completely immersed in the joy of union, she keeps her eyes 
closed and plays kapata-nidrd, acting as if in slumber." 

Q^erse 16 


kdpi madhuripund... (4) 

"Her cheeks must be even lovelier when her earrings are swinging. The tiny 
bells on the jewelled sash elegantly adorning her waist must be tinkling so 
sweetly as they shake about on her hips." 

"It is only natural for her earrings to sway when she is competing in the game of 
love. Therefore the captivating countenance of her cheeks must have increased. 
The bells attached to the sash on her waist will be ringing continuously. They 
must seem to be very restless because her thighs are constantly in motion." 

O^erse 17 


kdpi madhuripund... (5) 


"When beloved Krsna glances upon her, she becomes embarrassed and 
laughs shyly. And when she tastes the mellows of coition, she must be making 


an inarticulate sound resembling the warbling of birds like the cuckoo or 
kalahamsa, indicating that she is experiencing a sudden surge of erotic 


"When Sri Krsna is satisfied, he will look towards her. Then she will lower her 
face in shame and begin to chuckle. As she gasps for breath in the throes of 
excessive sensual ecstasy, she must be making many different types of sweet 
inarticulate sounds like the cuckoo or kalahamsa bird." 

QPerse 18 


kapi madhuripuna... (6) 


"When she is thrilled by the ecstasies of Cupid, horripilation and bodily 
convulsions wash over her like waves. Her complete absorption in sexual 
pleasure will be revealed by the way she closes her eyes and lets out a long 


"At the time of making love, her kdma will gradually intensify as the pores of 
her skin repeatedly become erect. She trembles, her voice falters and she draws 
long breaths. When she attains the climax of her rapture, she will close her 

Vepathu-bhangd - In this verse horripilation and trembling have been 
compared to waves. "Just as waves rise one after another in the ocean, similarly 
horripilation and trembling must be arising in her body, one after the other." 


paripatitorasi rati-rana-dhtra 

kapi madhuripuna... (7) 


"This passionate young woman, who is expert in tasting the flavours of 
sensual love, must look even more attractive when she is covered in droplets 
of perspiration from the exertion of her love-sports. She knows how to hold 
her patience during intercourse. How beautiful she must be when, thoroughly 
exhausted from the hard labour of making love, she finally collapses upon 
Krsna's chest." 


"She must have become completely exhausted from her absorption in the 
energy of the god of lust. How her lotus face must be glistening with drops of 
perspiration from the hard exertion of making love. She is most skilful in sexual 
warfare. How astonishingly beautiful she must look now that she has fallen 
upon Krsna's chest." 

Q^erse 20 

kali-kalusam janayatu parisamitam 

kapi madhuripuna... (8) 


May Sri Jayadeva's description of Sri Hari's love-play subdue the ill-effects of the 
age of Kali. (May it pacify the lusty desires of everyone.) 



The fourteenth song of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Hari-ramita-campaka- 
sekhara, describes viparita-rati. Although the current era (Kali-yuga) is highly 
contaminating, this description of sexual affairs is pure. May it cleanse the lust 
from the hearts of all who hear and recite it. 

Q^erse 2 J 

v3 O O v5 


dyutir ayam tirayann api vedandm 
vidhur atlva tanoti mano-bhuvah 

suhrd aye hrdaye madana-vyathdm 

"My dear friend, the lustre of the moon has faded. It resembles the lustre of 
Murarfs lotus face that pales in separation from me. After removing my anguish, 
the moon became friends with Kamadeva and now he is increasing the agitation 
of amorous desires in my heart." 


Sri Radha passed the entire night in lamentation. As she watched the moon 
moving in the direction of Mount Asta on the western horizon, she remembered 
Krsna's previous affection for her. Confiding in her friend, Radha said, "O sakhi, 
how painful it is. The moon increases the distress of those who are suffering 
from loneliness. Now, because the moon is setting, so is the burning of my 
amorous desires. I remember the lotus face of Sri Hari when I see the pale 


A>ct Q&even 

complexion of the setting moon. How languid he must have become in 
separation from me." 

Then, at the very next moment, she draws the opposite conclusion. "Sri Hari 
has abandoned me and he is enjoying pastimes with another lover. Therefore 
his lustre resembles the setting moon and the pain in my heart has become even 


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A>ct Q&even 

Q^erse 22 

samudita-madane ramanl-vadane cumbana-valitddhare 
mrgamada-tilakam likhati sa-pulakam mrgam iva rajanl-kare 

ramate yamund-pulina-vane 
vijayt murdrir adhund (refrain) (1) 


"Madhuripu is victorious in the love-battle. Now he is enjoying romance with 
his beloved in a forest on the bank of the Yamuna. This attractive mistress, 
every pore of her skin erupting with joy, is the very embodiment of everything 
that excites lust. Sri Krsna is decorating her face with a design in musk that 
resembles the mark of a deer upon the moon. His hair is also standing on end 
and he is kissing her." 


Sri Radha speaks incoherent words of lamentation, extending her imaginative 
projections about what Krsna must be doing now. She is actually remembering 
her own previous pastimes with Krsna and describing what she sees through 
the eyes of her ecstatic loving mood (bhdva-netrd). 

Radha sees a wonderful heroine who is thinking, "Now Madhuripu has 
defeated me in this love -battle and he will observe his victory festival (vijaya- 
utsavd)" Describing the characteristics of this imaginary mistress, Radha says, 
"In a forest on the Yamuna riverside, Krsna is playing with that beautiful young 
woman by artistically decorating her. He is applying a tilaka of deer-musk upon 
the lotus face of that attractive lover, causing her to thrill with horripilation. 
On the pretext of decorating her, he has drawn her face close to his with the 
intention of kissing her. By doing this, his kdma has become fully aroused and 
his hairs are also standing on end. He cannot contain his feelings. With great 
difficulty, he is painting a tilaka that ends up as a zigzag pattern. Now her beauty 
is like that of the moon with its deer-shaped mark. By kissing her upon the lips 
and face, the colour of that tilaka has become smudged across Krsna's lips." 


O^erse 23 

ghana-caya-rucire racayati cikure taralita-tarundnane 
kurubaka-kusumam capald-susamam rati-pati-mrga-kdnane 

ramate yamund-pulina vane... (2) 

"That young woman's charming locks of hair resemble a mass of dark rain- 
clouds. They are a play-forest for the deer called Madana. Her fresh, sympathetic 
face always shines forth from amongst those locks, in which he is now arranging 
rose laurel blossoms." 


Commenting on Krsna's sport of decorating his beloved, Sri Radha tells her 
sakht, "He has not only drawn tilaka upon her forehead, he has also adorned 
her hair with rose laurel flowers. Her hair is so black, soft, curly and abundant 
that it resembles a multitude of rainclouds. Or it seems to be a dense forest 
wherein the deer called Kamadeva can wander without fear. The hearts of 
young men become restless simply by seeing these locks of hair. The rose laurel 
flowers arranged in her hair by Sri Hari are shining brilliantly like lightning in 
the dark clouds." 

Q^erse 2$ 

ghatayati sughane kuca-yuga-gagane mrgamada-ruci-rusite 
mani-saram amalam tdraka-patalam nakha-pada-sasi-bhusite 

ramate yamund-pulina vane... (3) 


"This woman with beautiful hair has such large breasts that they touch together 
in the middle. Smeared with thick, black kasturi powder, they resemble the 
night sky embellished by the half moon-shaped impressions of his fingernails. 


A>ct Q&even 

He is adorning her with an enchanting necklace of pearls, as if placing a 
constellation of immaculate stars, upon the firmament of the night sky." 


Sri Radha says, "Sri Krsna is placing a multitude of stars in the form of the pearls 
of a necklace upon that attractive woman's breasts. Her breasts are decorated 
with the half-moon-shaped marks of his fingernails." 

There is a charming and multifaceted similarity between the sky and her 

Kuca-yuga-gagane - "As the sky is expansive, so are her breasts." A clear 
conception of the immensity of her breasts has been given by the image of 
the sky. 

Sughane - "That heroine's breasts, being extremely firm, touch together in 
the middle, giving the appearance of the sky when it is full of beautiful, dense 

Mrgamada-ruci-rusite - "Droplets of perspiration are trickling down her 
breasts from the hard exertion of making love. So Krsna smears her breasts with 
musk powder (kasturt) to make them dry. The night sky also has a dark blue- 
black hue like kasturt!' 

Taraka-patalam nakha-pada-sasi-bhusite - "Her pearl necklace appears to 
be a multitude of stars and the impressions left by the tips of Krsna's fingernails 
appear to be radiant half-moons upon the night sky of her round breasts." 

Taken together, these comparisons comprise a delightful use of imagery. 
Her tilaka is a deer, her forehead is the moon and her mass of hair is a safe and 
peaceful forest. The rose laurel flowers are flashes of lightning and her breasts 
have become the sky, enhanced by the moon and stars in the form of nail-marks 
and tiny pearls. 


O^erse 25 

jita-bisa-sakale mrdu-bhuja-yugale kara-tala-nalini-dale 
marakata-valayam madhukara-nicayam vitarati hima-sitale 

ramate yamuna-pulina vane... (4) 

"That charming mistress has elegant hair and large round breasts. Not only that, 
her arms are cooler than lotus stems and they are beautified by her soft lotus 
petal hands. Now he is putting bumblebees upon them in the form of emerald- 
encrusted bracelets." 


Radha says, "That fortunate young woman's arms defeat the tenderness of a 
lotus stem. Her hands are fair like snow and their cool palms are red as lotus 
flowers. As black bumblebees upon the petals of a red lotus look so pleasant, 
her lotus petal hands look delightful as Krsna adorns them with bangles 
encrusted with nila jewels. These bangles give the impression that bumblebees 
have formed a line surrounding her hands." 

Hima-sitale - "His lover's arms are as cool as snow because the heat of her 
desires has been relieved by his touch." Alternatively, coolness indicates her lack 
of kama. The bracelets will generate a new heat in those cool hands. 

Q^erse 26 

rati-grha-jaghane vipuldpaghane manasija-kanakdsane 
manimaya-rasanam torana-hasanam vikirati krta-vdsane 

ramate yamuna-pulina vane... (5) 


"The hips of that attractive woman are as voluptuous, fragrant and broad as the 
golden throne of the sex-god. He is decorating her loins - the abode of amorous 


A>ct Q&even 

love - with a jewelled girdle, as if he were emblazoning the arched doorway of 
a palace with an auspicious festoon." 


Sri Radha says, "The hips of that mistress embody the very shelter of amorous 
amusement. Her beautiful, broad and fleshy thighs are the golden throne of the 
god of lust. Simply by seeing them, the intense hankering for the pleasure of 
union awakens in Krsna's heart." 

Krta-vdsanam - "Heroines perfume their limbs with a special kind of 
fragrant smoke that brings their lovers under their control. That attractive 
woman has perfumed her loins with this scent and brought Krsna under her 

Kanakdsane - "The golden throne of Kamadeva." The word kanaka, mean- 
ing "gold", also refers to the poisonous herb, dhattura, which is very dear to 
Sankara, Lord Siva. Sankara had burnt Kamadeva to ashes, therefore the word 
kanaka has been used to indicate the incitement of kama. 

Manimaya-rasanam torana-hasanam - Whenever a king ascends to the 
throne, the principal arched gateway to the palace is decorated with vandana- 
vdra, an auspicious festoon of leaves and flowers. Here, Krsna is decorating his 
lover with vandana-vdra, in the form of a jewelled girdle, in honour of King 
Kamadeva's ascension to the golden throne of her fair thighs. 

Vikirati - Krsna began to tremble with erotic desire upon touching her 
thighs. Thus he could not put her jewelled girdle on properly. Nevertheless, the 
attempt to put it on has been done - that attempt turned into the recollection of 
one special pastime. 


O^erse 27 

carana-kisalaye kamald-nilaye nakha-mani-gana-pujite 
bahir-apavaranam ydvaka-bharanam janayati hrdiyojite 

ramate yamuna-pulina vane... (6) 

"The fresh bud-like feet of that curvaceous woman are resplendent with a 
fascinating reddish lustre and they are adorned with the precious jewels of 
her toenails. His chest, which is the abode of the goddess of fortune, is now 
decorated with nail-marks and gemstones. He has established her feet upon his 
chest and he is carefully colouring them with red footlac." 


Describing Krsna's new love-play, Radha says, "The lotus feet of that greatly 
fortunate young woman are the very shelter of Laksmi. They are reddish like 
soft, fresh flower petals and her toenails shine like precious jewels. He has sat 
down, embracing those two feet to his heart. The goddess of fortune Laksmi 
eternally resides upon his chest, which is now decorated with an array of 
gems and the nail-marks made by that comely woman who is so expert at 
making love. Krsna is applying yavaka footlac with his own lotus hands to her 
naturally reddish feet. He is adorning them with ornaments and making a great 
endeavour to take care of them." 

The adjectival phrase nakha-mani-gana-pujita is applicable both to Krsna 
and his mistress. 

QPerse 28 

ramayati subhrsam kdm api sudrsam khala-haladhara-sodare 
kim aphalam avasam ciram iha virasam vada sakhi vitapodare 

ramate yamuna-pulina vane... (7) 


A>ct Q&even 


"The brother of Haladhara - that indiscriminate, ill-mannered uncouth rogue, 
Krsna - is definitely tightly embracing some woman with beautiful eyes and 
making love to her. So sakhi, tell me - how long shall I sit waiting in this bower 
of flowering vines in an unpleasant mood, completely devoid of rasaV 


After waiting for a long time, Radha became hopeless and said to her friend, 
"Sakhi, say something. Give up your silence. Now what is the benefit of uselessly 
loitering in a dense thicket in the forest until the early hours?" 

Khala-haladhara-sodare - "Haladhara is a name of Balarama. His younger 
brother, Krsna, is extremely mischievous. Haladhara means 'ploughman'. Just 
like a plough, Krsna is base, rustic and unsophisticated. After neglecting and 
cheating me, he is enjoying with that woman with beautiful eyes. Oh, how 
could she have beautiful eyes? He is just dallying with some uncouth villager 
mistress who is just like he is. What relationship do I have with him? I placed 
my trust in him and what was the result? I have just spent the whole night 
sitting in this wild jungle. How he has disregarded me. Should I continue to be 
consumed by remorse while waiting around in this kuhja? Should I simply go 
on investigating his whereabouts? What recourse do I have? But sakhi, how can 
I tolerate it? He said that he would come here and instead he is engrossed in 
pastimes with another beloved." 

The heroine of this fifteenth song is svadhina-bhartrka nayika. Krsna cannot 
leave her because he is captivated by her qualities. This is the root cause of his 
neglect towards Radha. 


Ctferse 29 

iha rasa-bhanane krta-hari-gunane madhuripu-pada-sevake 
kali-yuga-caritam na vasatu duritam kavi-nrpa-jayadevake 

ramate yamuna-pulina vane... (8) 


The king of poets, Jayadeva, glorifies the pastimes of Sri Hari, which are 
completely full of the romantic flavour, srngara-rasa. May the fault of wicked 
behaviour, which is so prevalent in Kali-yuga, never enter this servant of 
Sri Madhusudana. 


In the ecstasy of writing this song, Sri Jayadeva considers himself to be the 
best amongst all the servants of Madhuripu and prays that the disgraceful 
characteristics prevalent in this present age of quarrel and hypocrisy may 
never enter those who hear this song. The word rasa-bhanane means "one 
who speaks of sensuality in a way that is full of rasa". Hari-gunane refers to 
Sri Jayadeva as "one who repeatedly recites the glories of Sri Hari". All the 
statements of the poet in this song are excitants of rasa (uddlpand). When this 
rasa appears, the dark tendencies aroused by the influence of Kali-yuga can no 
longer enter the heart. 


A>ct Q&even 

O^erse 30 

M44I3 flN^HW ^RldWI^^IHIui *M- 

*r*Ud|[d^RTf^ ¥hi?^ ^?T: *5PT ^T^rfrT II ?o || 

ndydtah sakhi nirdayo yadi sathas Warn duti kith duyase 

svacchandam bahu-vallabhah sa ramate kith tatra te dusanam 

pasyddya priya-sangamdya dayitasydkrsyamdnam gunair 
utkanthdrti-bhardd iva sphutad idam cetah svayam ydsyati 


Sakhi - "O sakhi, Radha! He did not come." 

Radha - "If that merciless, cruel-hearted, two-faced cheater does not come, 
why should you be upset?" 

Sakhi - "He has many beloveds and he freely enjoys amorous love with them 
without the slightest restraint." 

Radha - "What fault is that of yours? Look! Today my heart has been broken 
by the burden of intense eagerness. Being attracted by the qualities of my most 
beloved Sri Krsna, my heart will go to meet with him by itself." 


Radha continued to express her anxious longing in the great distress of 
separation. When Krsna did not come, she concluded that this despondent- 
faced messenger-girl (duti) must be to blame. The sakhi told Radha, "My dear 
friend, I called him many times, but he is so merciless that he did not come." 
Radha replied, "If that two-faced cheater and rogue does not come then what 
fault is that of yours? Why are you so upset? You have done your duty as a 
messenger very well." The messenger replied, "I am upset because I could 
not bring him. He has numerous beloveds and he is independent. He enjoys 
whenever and wherever he wants." Again Radha asked, "So what fault is that of 


yours? Now look here. My heart is forcibly attracted by his qualities. It is being 
torn apart by the intolerable agony of his absence, so my devastated prana will 
surely leave and reach him by itself." 

What is the nature of Radha's heart? It is spontaneously attracted by Krsna's 
qualities. The phrase utkanthdrti-bhardd implies, "My heart is breaking under 
the burden of the unfulfilled desire to unite with my beloved. Although I try to 
check it, it will not stop. It will certainly go to him." 

Alternatively, "Look, sakhil It is not possible to attain my beloved's asso- 
ciation at this time because another charming mistress is meeting with him. 
Nevertheless, my eagerness is increasing at every moment." 

Again, the words of Radha may also be understood in the following sense. 
"This heart has previously experienced the delight of union with Sri Hari, so 
it will definitely go there. This is no fault of yours and no fault of mine. That 
mistress is also not to be blamed. Providence has surely become averse to me." 

A further sense is, "In this way my heart must go there and, after attaining 
release, it will cease all activity." 

As Radha was singing about Krsna's qualities in a state of calm despondency 
(santa-nirvedd), she reached the tenth and final condition of separation in which 
she desires her own death. 

Krsna's considerate nature is the guarantee of happiness for his attractive 
lover. She does not have to experience even the slightest difficulty. Conversely, 
in the absence of Krsna, Radha has attained a state of dire despondency in 
which she feels that everything has gone wrong. 

The first half of this verse is a dialogue between Radha and her companion. 
Now, Radha has become paranoid that her messenger who went to bring Krsna 
has returned after making love with him herself. Therefore Radha calls Krsna 
a merciless, two-faced cheater and so on. "What an uncouth rustic he is. He 
doesn't even know the difference between a heroine and a messenger girl!" 

In this verse the chanda is sdrdula-vikridita and the alankdra is kdvyalinga. 


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O^erse 31 

tapati na sd kisalaya-sayanena 

sakhi! yd ramitd vanamdlind (refrain) (1) 


"Krsna's eyes are as restless as a lotus flower moving in the wind. That fine 
young woman is delighted by Vanamali Krsna. She must not have felt the 
slightest difficulty when she lay down upon a bed of freshly sprouted leaves." 


Now Radha's jealousy is inflamed more than ever. Therefore, all the compli- 
ments spoken by Radha in this song are simultaneously veiled criticisms. Each 
of the following verses will be explained first as complimentary (stuti-paraka- 
artha), and then as critical (ninddparaka-arthd) . 

Complimentary - Radha tells her friend, "O sakhi, Krsna is Vanamali, 
garlanded with the flowers of the forest. His eyes are as restless as a blue lotus 
moving in the south wind. That young woman delights Krsna and he satisfies 
her amorous desires. How could she know how it feels to be scorched as I am 
scorched, even when I lie upon a bed of freshly sprouted leaves? How a heart 
can be broken and torn to pieces is known only to me." 

Radha has praised Sri Krsna in this verse by describing him as a courteous 
and considerate lover. 

Critical - "Vanamali Krsna was so immersed in the outstanding natural 
beauty of the forest that he must have been disinterested in loving pastimes 
with that gopi. His lotus eyes beheld her as she lay down on a bed of soft leaves. 
Did that gopi feel distress when she could not make the situation progress any 
further than that? She certainly did." In other words, "That gopi must have felt 
distress because Krsna was disinterested in her. His eyes were moving like blue 
lotus flowers in the wind as he looked around for another lover." 


A>ct Q&even 

O^erse 32 

sphutati na sd manasija-visikhena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (2) 


"The terrible arrows of Kandarpa can never pierce that beautiful woman who 
has been enjoyed by Vanamall Krsna. His charming face resembles a fully 
blossomed lotus flower." 

Alternatively, "That gopi cannot enjoy amorous pastimes with Krsna because 
he is in a joking mood, unconcerned with the sensual arts. Is she not pierced by 
the terrible arrows of kdma? She certainly is." 


Complimentary - "Vanamall Krsna's face shines with romantic expressions 
like a lotus in full bloom as he gives joy to his mistress. How could she know 
about the pain inflicted by Cupid's arrows? There is no question of that lover 
feeling the distress of kdrna's arrows as I am in separation. How my heart has 
been torn apart." 

Critical - "Krsna is averse to love-play. He is preoccupied with laughing 
and joking. This gopi cannot enjoy amorous pastimes with him because his 
charming face just goes on laughing and joking. Is she not suffering from 
Cupid's arrows? She certainly is." 


O^erse 33 

jvalati na sd malayaja-pavanena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (3) 


"Krsna speaks sweet and tender words to delight that young woman. She can 
never feel scorched by contact with the Malaya breeze." 


Complimentary - "Sakhi, he is charming that attractive mistress with the 
nectar of his softly spoken, endearing words. How could she know what kind of 
flames are ignited by the cool south wind coming from Malaya Mountain? Can 
she know about the pain that burns heroines at the time of separation?" 

Critical - "Krsna has not enjoyed amorous love with that gopi. Rather, he is 
just bewildering her with the nectar of his sweet and gentle words. Will that 
young woman not be burning in the Malaya breeze? She most certainly will." 

Q^erse 3% 

luthati na sd himakara-kiranena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (4) 


"Vanamall Krsna's hands and feet are as cool and lustrous as hibiscus flowers. 
The charming woman who has been enjoyed by them does not have to roll 
about on the earth, burning in the rays of the moon." 


A>ct Q&even 


Complimentary - "O sakhi, the palms of Krsna's hands and the soles of 
his feet are as cool and lustrous as land lotuses. Will the mistress who enjoys 
making love with him know how the cool rays of the moon can burn? Why 
would she change sides throughout the whole night, while lying on her bed as 
she burns in the moonshine?" 

Critical - "She must be continually changing sides all night for want of 
attaining the embrace of Krsna's cool lotus limbs." 

Q^erse 3S 

dahati na sd hrdi viraha-davena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (5) 


"Vanamall Krsna is even more enchanting, fresh and effulgent than a bank 
of newly condensed rainclouds. That perfectly curvaceous woman who has 
enjoyed union with Krsna will never be burnt by a large quantity of poison in 
the form of prolonged separation." 


Complimentary - "O sakhi, that beautiful young woman has been enjoyed by 
Sri Krsna. His form is exceptionally enchanting and fresh like a new raincloud. 
She is never afraid of the venom of separation because he is showering affection 
upon her like a raincloud. How could she know that prolonged separation can 
tear one to pieces?" 

Critical - "That gopi could not have enjoyed union with Krsna, whose 
complexion resembles a new raincloud. Will she not be suffering from the 
severe poison of prolonged separation? She must be miserable." 


Q^erse 36 

svasiti na sd parijana-hasanena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (6) 


"With his dark complexion dressed in pure yellow cloth, Krsna resembles a 
touchstone for testing gold. The fortunate young woman who has been enjoyed 
by him never has to draw deep breaths after becoming the cause of laughter for 
those around her." 


Complimentary - "Sakhi, Krsna's cloth is as pure, yellow and radiant as 
golden lines rubbed upon the dark testing stone of his body. That greatly 
fortunate mistress is also his yellow garment when he binds her in the ropes 
of his arms. So what will that noble young woman, who has been delighted by 
him, know of the pain felt when one's own retinue begin to make jokes at one's 
expense? Will she know how one's breathing becomes stifled or what kind of 
dejection arises?" 

Critical - "Syamasundara wears yellow garments and his dark complexion is 
as lustrous as gold. To attain the happiness of union with him, that gopi wears 
saffron garments. Saffron is a colour suitable for ascetics, therefore she is now 
an object of ridicule amongst her own entourage. She must be depressed about 

Q^erse 37 

vahati na sd rujam ati-karunena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (7) 


A>ct Q&even 

"Krsna is the best of all the young men in the entire universe. His charming, 
youthful form is lustrous. The heroine who is now enjoying love with him does 
not feel the dreadful pain of separation in the core of her heart because he is 
exceedingly compassionate." 


Complimentary - "Amongst all the tender young men throughout the various 
planetary systems, Krsna most abundantly exudes the joys of youth. He is the 
most handsome and the best amongst fresh adolescent performers of drama and 
dance. He is an ocean of mercy. The beautiful young woman he satisfies will 
not descend into a wretched condition and become utterly listless like me." 

Critical - "That attractive young mistress enjoys love with the best young 
men in the universe. She must feel pain when she is separated from any one of 

QPerse 38 

pravisatu harir api hrdayam anena 

sakhi! yd ramitd... (8) 

May Sri Hari enter the hearts of the devotees along with Radha's words of 
lamentation, rendered herein by Sri Jayadeva. 

This rendition of Radha's words has been sung to glorify Madhava. May Krsna 
be pleased by this song and enter the heart. Whose heart should he enter? The 
heart of Sri Radha. 


And may the supreme paramour, entering through the ears of the reciters 
and audience of my song, take his place on the heart-lotus of their ecstatic 
loving sentiments. 

This sixteenth song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Ndrdyana-madandydsa. 

Q^erse 39 

^Tt *T*T MIU|^<1 qfasrfH II 3<? II 

manobhavdnandana candandnila 
praslda re daksina munca vdmatdm 

ksanarh jagat-prdna vidhdya mddhavam 
puro mama prdna-haro bhavisyasi 


"O breeze from the Malaya Mountain! O you who give joy to Kamadeva! Stay 
down in the South! Give up your antagonism! O you who are like the prana of 
the universe! Bring Madhava before me and then take away my prana." 


Radha says, "The wind from Malaya Mountain makes the arrows of kdma 
reach their target. Now he has turned against me. He has delighted his friend 
Kamadeva by setting me on fire and burning me so severely in the agonizing 
fire of sensual desires." 

Unable to tolerate the blows inflicted by Kamadeva's arrows, Radha addres- 
ses the Malaya breeze. "You are called the South wind and you give joy to the 
whole world. So why are you not favourably disposed to me? Why have you 
become antagonistic? I know that you are a companion of Kamadeva and it is 
certain that your nature has been defiled by contact with the snake-infested 


A>ct Q&even 

sandalwood trees on Malaya Mountain. How much suffering will you inflict 
upon me? O life-air of the universe, be pleased for just a moment and forgive 
me. Abandon your animosity towards me. You can take my life-airs, but I have 
one last request. First give me the opportunity to see my beloved Madhava, and 
then you can plunder my prana." 

This verse features vamsasthavila chanda and atisayokti alankdra. 

£44H<^ dftH^cl MHcJrt^ sT^TrT 

*c|tf^li en*?: ^mt P|cblHPl<^$l: II *o \\ 

ripur iva sakhi-sarhvdso yam sikhiva himdnilo 
visam iva sudhd-rasmir yasmin dunoti manogate 

hrdayam adaye tasminn evarh punar valate baldt 
kuvalaya-drsdm vdmah kdmo nikdma-nirankusah 


"O sakhi, my heart feels the pleasing company of my friends to be like the 
association of enemies. The cool and gentle breeze seems like a sacrificial 
fire and the moonshine gives me pain as if it were poison. Nevertheless, my 
heart is forcibly attached to him against my will. It is true that kdma is always 
completely unbridled in dealing with impassioned young women who are as 
beautiful as the night-blooming water lily." 


Radha criticizes her own heart in the madness of separation. She complains to 
her sakhi, "Alas! Whom can I blame? Today my memories of Krsna make the 
happy company of those dear friends who forbade me to meet with him seem 
like a hostile rain of enmity. The cool breeze burns me like fire and the moon 


seems to be deadly poison. O sakhi, despite all this adversity, my heart still 
runs incessantly after that merciless, cruel person, Sri Krsna. Therefore the only 
cause of my suffering is my own indiscriminate heart. For lotus-eyed women 
who have no power to discriminate between the beneficial and the detrimental, 
kama is extremely difficult to restrain and turns into the cause of unlimited 
misery. Kamadeva is uncontrollable. He is a harsh antagonist to beautiful young 
women and his behaviour is especially wanton towards heroines in separation." 
This verse features harini chanda and virodha alankdra. 

T^K fw WI $IIW4d ^TF: II * R II 

badham vidhehi malaydnila panca-bdna 
prdndn grhdna na grhampunar dsrayisye 

kith te krtdnta-bhagini ksamayd tarangair 
angdni sinca mama sdmyatu deha-ddhah 


"O Malaya breeze, give me pain! O archer with five arrows, you may steal my 
life-airs, but I will never go home! O Yamuna, you are the sister of Yama, the 
lord of death. So why should you forgive me? Sprinkle me with your waves so 
that the burning distress of my body may be extinguished forever." 


Radha is now burning in the heat of separation. Taking a vow to give up her 
life, she says, "O Malaya breeze! O cooling wind, why are you waiting? Take a 
stand and give me pain! O Pancabana, plunder my prana! That is why you have 
five arrows - to steal my five life-airs. Stealing prana is your ultimate objective. 


A>ct Q&even 

"Although this is true, you first inflame those who are suffering and turn 
them in the direction of household life. However, I will die first. No matter how 
much you control me, I will never go to my household. I will take shelter of the 
lotus feet of Sri Krsna." 

Radha is devastated by kdrna. After criticizing both Kamadeva and the 
Malaya breeze, Radha turns to the Yamuna river, "O Yamuna, you are the 
sister of Yamaraja, the lord of death! The Malaya breeze and Kamadeva are 
torturing me. Although Kamadeva is the cause of lovers' union, he has reversed 
his behaviour. The Malaya breeze, which usually delights me, now makes me 
depressed. When my pranas are accepted by both of them, then what answer 
will you give to your brother Yama? So do not forgive me. Soak my limbs in your 
waves. Take my corpse into your waters so that the heat of my lifeless body may 
be extinguished." 

In this way, Radha's feelings of separation from Krsna reached the tenth and 
final condition - desiring one's own death. 

This verse features vasanta-tilakd chanda and aprastuta-prasamsd alankdra. 

TTSTFTTgrf^Kt fatflcKI ^rfrT ^t wfcprg^ I 

WI^<*J<allWRf *HI<*Ht*W H^lrH^: II X ? II 

prdtar nila-nicolam acyutam urah samvlta-pltdmsukam 

rddhdyds cakitam vilokya hasati svairam sakhl-mandale 
vrldd-cancalam ancalam nayanayor ddhdya rddhdnane 

svddu-smera-mukho yam astu jagad-dnanddya nanddtmajah 


One morning, in a state of utter bewilderment, Acyuta Krsna put on Radha's 
blue upper garment and Radha covered her breast with Krsna's yellow upper 


garment. Seeing this, all the sakhts burst into fits of uncontrollable laughter. 
When Krsna saw them all laughing, he became shy and, with a mild smile, he 
cast an expressive sidelong glance towards the lotus face of Radha. May that son 
of Nanda give joy to the whole universe. 


Sri Jayadeva gives a blessing to the devotees in the final verse of Act Seven. 
"May Krsna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, bestow bliss upon the whole world." 
Sri Jayadeva remembered a loving pastime of Sri Radha-Madhava that had 
occurred previously in a nearby forest and he has described the early morning 
scene there. 

We can infer that Sri Jayadeva could no longer describe Radha in the pain of 
separation (khanditavastha) . Instead, he affords us a glimpse of her blissful state 
of disarray (khanditavastha) after meeting with Krsna on a previous night. He 
employs the logic of a lion's glance (simhdvalokana-nydya) to depict the general 
trend of the night-time pastimes. This form of logic refers to the casting of a 
retrospective glance while simultaneously proceeding. 

Sri Sri Radha-Madhava passed the night together absorbed in playing love 
games. When morning came, in a state of bewilderment, they put on each 
other's clothes. Acyuta (infallible) Krsna put on Radha's blue bodice, and Radha 
covered her breast with his yellow upper garment. The sakhts burst out laughing 
on witnessing this surprising exchange and they were struck with wonder. 
Sri Krsna's eyes became restless with embarrassment. His sidelong glance fell 
upon the face of Radha and he blushed with a gentle smile. 

This verse has revealed Sri Jayadeva's desire for the world's auspiciousness. 
It includes hasya-rasa, sdrdula-vikridita chanda and svabhdvokti alankdra. The 
hero is satha ndyaka and the heroine is abhisdrikd ndyikd. 

Thus ends the Balabodhinl-prakasa commentary on 
Act Seven of Sri Glta-govinda, entitled Nagara-naray ana. 


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QPerse J 

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<^/z<2 katham apt yaminlm viniya 

smara-sara-jarjaritdpi sdprabhdte 
anunaya-vacanam vadantam agre 

pranatam apipriyam aha sdbhyasuyam 


hereafter, Radha somehow or other managed to pass the night. When 
morning came, Krsna fell at her feet and tried to pacify her wrath with 
humble words. Although Radha was severely injured by the arrows 
of Cupid, on seeing her dear lover present before her in a submissive mood and 
expressing his feelings of separation, she began to speak to him in a jealous 


Throughout the previous night, Radha continually wove a network of pre- 
sumptions about Krsna entirely from the figments of her imagination. She would 
look out for his arrival with intense longing and, when he did not come, she 
was torn apart by disappointment. She continually sent messages and replies 
about the ill-effects of the intoxicating springtime breeze. On that night of the 
spring season, she was struck from ten directions at once by the fragrance of 
varieties of flowers and by the arrows of kdma. She lamented incessantly in 
the appointed meeting place, while dreaming about meeting with Krsna and 
becoming completely lost in memories of union with him. In this way, the night 
passed and morning came. How ironic it is; the huff Qmdnd) of pouting heroines 
increases in the presence of their beloveds. When Krsna finally came before 


her, he bowed down and spoke extremely humble words of conciliation. In a 
submissive mood, he tried to comfort her and dissipate her anger. However, 
simply by the devastating influence of kdfna, she saw signs of lovemaking on 
Krsna's body and became even more impetuous and unpredictable. 

Sri Krsna's bowing at the lotus feet of Sri Radha represents the topmost 
excellence of prema. Radha's prana had risen up to her throat; that is, she was 
about to expire. Her jealousy increased simply by seeing her beloved Krsna and 
she spoke as follows. 





Scene Seventeen 

The musical mode is bhairavi rdga. The rhythm is yati tala. 

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rajani-janita-guru-jdgara-rdga-kasdyitam alasa-nimesam 
vahati nayanam anurdgam iva sphutam udita-rasdbhinivesam 

hari! hari! ydhi mddhava ydhi kesava ma vada kaitava-vddam 
tarn anusara sarastruha-locana yd tava harati visddam 

(refrain) (1) 


"Madhava, go! Kesava, go away! Do not speak deceptive words! Go to the 
woman who can take away your sorrow! Your tired eyes are slowly closing 
because you were fully alert throughout the night. They are reddish from your 
absorption in the mellows of lovemaking and even now they express a powerful 
and increasing attachment for that beautiful vraja-gopV 

Hari! hari! - "Oh God, Lord have mercy!" These two non-inflected interjections 
spoken by Radha are expressions of her profound disappointment. They also 
serve to complete the metre of the song. 

Krsna's eyes are red because he was awake all night in the anguish of 
separation. Krsna is so weary that his eyes repeatedly close. Noticing this, 
Radha addresses him by three names that reveal her inner moods, especially 
jealousy towards her rival. 

Madhava - In the mood of a jilted heroine (khanditd ndyikd), Radha says to 
her beloved as he bows down before her, "Laksmlpati, go! Go away! You are 
deeply attached to someone else. Therefore you are bound to offend others in 
one way or another. You are not (ma) my husband (dhava). What to speak of 
being my husband, you cheat me." 

Alternatively, ma implies, "Laksmi is fickle by nature, therefore it is only 
logical to conclude that her consort is also fickle. Since I am devoted to only one 
consort, how could you have any real affection for me? It is not possible, so go 
away! " 


Act GLtyht 

The prominent meaning of ma is Sri Radha; and dhava refers to prdna- 
priyatama, her most beloved Krsna who is dearer than her own life-air. 

Kesava - Lodging further accusations and expressing her dissatisfaction she 
said, "O Kesava, go away!" He who wears excellent attire and ornaments and 
whose hair is always unbound is called Kesava. 

Alternatively, one who is attached to a person whose hair is attractive is 
called Kesava. Here the word kesava implies, "May you dedicate yourself to 
some other ignoble woman whose hair is attractively adorned. O beloved of 
many! What is the point of speaking deceptive words to me when I am always 
devoted to only one person? Do not tell lies. If you are wondering why am I 
angry and upset, then listen - it is not so. Go and follow that lotus-eyed woman 
who takes away all your cares and woes. Your beloved must also have many 
lovers - like loves like." 

Sarasiruha-locana - "O lotus-eyed one!" The word saraslruha can refer either 
to the day-blooming lotus (kamald) or the night-blooming lotus (kumudd). It is 
well known that Krsna's eyes resemble the kamala. But here, Radha refers to the 
kumuda, which remains open throughout the night and closes at the break of 
day. Krsna also appeared in the moon dynasty. Therefore, Radha suspects that, 
like the moon, he has spent the whole night awake with his lover. 

"Even now, your thirst for her is visible in your eyes. Your guilt, in the form 
of love's redness, is still there. The escalating absorption in srngdra-rasa that 
arose in her association is evident in your eyes even now. Cunning behaviour 
manifests according to the nature of one's heart." 

Alternatively, sarasiruha-locana means, "O you whose eyes are half closed 
because you are always immersed in bliss!" Radha admonished Krsna, "Go to 
that woman who has showered her mercy on you all night." 

Krsna replied, "Radha, I am one in prana and one in body with you. I am 
speaking the truth when I say that I have not associated with any other woman. 
It is true that my eyes are reddish - but not from staying awake with another 
woman. My eyes are closing from tiredness." 


O^erse 3 

dasana-vasanam arunam tava krsna tanoti tanor anurupam 

hari! hari! yahi mddhava... (2) 

"Your beautiful red lips are the raiment of your rows of teeth. They have 
become blackish like your body from kissing her collyrium-smeared eyes." 


Projecting the act of betrayal upon Madhava within herself, Radha begins to 
pierce him with heart-rending insinuations. "Krsna! There is no need for deceit. 
If you say, 1 have not spent the night with any other lover,' then why are your 
eyes so red? Your prema for that passionate lover is still shining from your eyes 
even now." 

Krsna replied, "My dearest, I am telling you the truth. I have not been awake 
the whole night with any other mistress. My eyes are closing because I am 

Radha said, "Then why have your red lips become black? Her collyrium 
resembles the complexion of your body and you have been kissing her 
collyrium-smeared eyes all night. Go away! Go back to that woman who has 
coloured your eyes, coloured your lips and showered her compassion on you all 
night. Do not tell lies to me. Go! Your eyes are red from absorption in the joy of 
lovemaking. Being coloured by the redness of anurdga, they clearly reveal your 
strong attachment for that beautiful vraja-gopi" 

O^erse % 

vapur anuharati tava smara-sangara-khara-nakhara-ksata-rekham 
marakata-sakala-kalita-kala-dhauta-liper iva rati-jaya-lekham 

hari! hari! yahi mddhava... (3) 


Act GLtyht 

"Your dark body is marked with scratches from the sharp nails of that passionate 
woman. She is so expert at erotic combat during your sensual love games. It 
appears as if a certificate of victory in lovemaking has been inscribed in golden 
letters upon an emerald wall." 


Radha says, "O Krsna, each of your limbs is telling me the story of your loving 
pastimes. That charming woman has made scratches upon your chest with her 
sharp nails. It seems that your heart is a battlefield upon which a dreadful war 
has taken place. There are sharp, red scratch-marks upon your dark body. It 
appears as if a certificate of victory in lovemaking has been written in golden 
ink upon a dark emerald. This victory record proclaims the news of your 
conquest. A passionate woman has sent this amorous love-letter to her partner: 
'I have completely conquered you in this erotic contest.'" 

Radha is also condemning Krsna for his lowliness. She implies that he 
has been demoted from the position of a hero (nayakd) to the position of a 
messenger (dutd) by delivering this letter on behalf of Radha's rival. 

Radha has used the word khara (sharp) with a special intention. Primarily, 
it points to defeat in lovemaking. Secondly, scratches made by the nails should 
not be deep; they should be soft. Hard scratches are painful. Therefore Radha 
implies, "It seems that this mistress lacks proper knowledge of the techniques of 
lovemaking. Now go away! " 

Krsna replied, "Radha, I was searching for you in the thorny forests. My 
body was scratched by those thorns. These are not the nail-marks of a young 


carana-kamala-galad-alaktaka-siktam idam tava hrdayam uddram 
darsayatlva bahir madana-druma-nava-kisalaya-parivdram 

hari! hari! ydhi madhava... (4) 


"Your celebrated chest is coloured with marks of red footlac from the lotus feet 
of that attractive woman. It seems as if the firmly-rooted tree of amorous desire 
situated in the core of your heart is outwardly manifesting its newly sprouted 
red leaves." 


Radha's words are full of veiled accusations. "Aha! Your heart is so munificent. 
What an enchanting appearance it has assumed! You have exhibited your 
generosity by holding the lotus feet of that passionate woman upon your heart 
in the joy of prema. The colour of the liquid red lac flowing from her feet has 
coloured your chest. The redness of her footlac on your dark complexion 
enhances your handsomeness. It seems that the deep attachment in your heart 
is manifesting outwardly in the form of this colour, like new red leaves on the 
tree of your amorous desire. The fresh leaves on that kdrna tree in your heart 
are coming outside. This forbidden love affair has sprouted out onto your chest 
and now its new red leaves are visible in the form of these footprints. You 
cannot conceal your attachment for her. There is nothing for you here, so go 
away! " 

According to the opinion of some commentators, Radha implies that Krsna 
must have made love with this heroine in a special position called krodha- 

Presenting a case for his innocence, Krsna said, "This is just the remnant of a 
picture painted in minerals such as gairika-dhdtu. I have not held the lotus feet 
of any beautiful young woman and this is certainly not anyone's footlac smeared 
on my heart." 


Act GLtyht 

dasana-padam bhavad-adhara-gatam mama janayati cetasi khedam 
kathayati katham adhunapi maya saha tava vapur etad abhedam 

hari! hari! yahi madhava... (5) 

"Your lips are cut and wounded from the biting of that sensual woman's teeth. 
Seeing this, sorrow rises within my heart, yet even now you say, 'Your body is 
not separate from mine. Our bodies are not different.'" 


''Krsna! You can defend yourself against incriminating evidence such as the 
redness of your eyes by making fraudulent statements, but how will you explain 
away the wounds on your soft petal-like lips? The cuts made by the teeth of 
that sensual woman are as clearly visible as the crescent moon. Your shameless 
smile inflames my heart. The impression of that woman's 'bite' on your lips at 
the time of making love is arousing my sorrow. I had reached the tenth and final 
condition in separation from you. You repeatedly say, 'We two are one'. How 
dare you say that - with her bite-marks on your lips. Get out of here." 

Sri Krsna defended his innocence. "O darling, my lips were wounded by the 
bites of bumblebees greedy for their fragrance. They have not been bitten by a 


bahir iva malinataram tava krsna mano pi bhavisyati nunam 
katham atha vancayase janam anugatam asamasara-jvara-dunam 

hari! hari! yahi madhava... (6) 

"Krsna! Your heart must have become as dark as your body. If it were not so, 
then you would not deceive your own dependant in this way; especially at a 
time when she is maimed by the arrows of Cupid." 


Radha is disappointed. She says, "Krsna! You are even blacker on the inside 
than you are on the outside. How could a naturally noble and clean heart 
become so indifferent to me? Your black heart is so wicked, even to those 
who are inclined to you and those who have taken shelter of you. Only such a 
polluted heart could be so deceptive as to neglect me to enjoy with another's 
lover. I am already traumatized by the arrows of kama. At least you should not 
betray me in this condition. Go, cheater! Get out of here. A pure-hearted person 
could never do such a thing." 

Krsna said, "Radha! Do not doubt me unnecessarily. I would never cheat you." 

Q^erse 8 

bhramati bhavan abala-kavalaya vanesu kim atra vicitram 
prathayati putanikaiva vadhu-vadha-nirdaya-bdla-caritram 

hari! hari! yahi madhava... (7) 


"You are wandering from forest to forest simply for the purpose of killing 
innocent women. What is astonishing about this? By killing Putana while still 


Act GLtyht 

in your infancy, you had already acquainted us with your cruel and merciless 
nature. Killing women is just a part of your habitual behaviour." 


Radha continued, "It is your inherent nature to wander about the forests 
'devouring' and killing women. So if you also kill me, then what is so surprising 
about that? 

"Even in your infancy, you became renowned for killing the belligerent 
Putana, the sister of Karhsa. So how easy it is for you to kill a woman like me. 
When such a powerful woman immediately aged and died by your influence, 
then what is so astonishing about killing a woman like me? The Vedic scriptures 
state that it is forbidden to kill a woman. Such an act is considered most 
reprehensible. But this depravity of yours is innate from birth. Kindly go away. 
Now you are a young man, so you will not have to make the slightest endeavour 
to kill a woman like me. O cruel one, leave me alone!" 

QPerse 9 

srnuta sudhd-madhuram vibudha vibudhdlayato pi durdpam 

hari! hari! ydhi mddhava... (8) 


O learned ones, may you hear the bitter lamentation of a betrayed and sensually 
deprived young woman, Radha, which is even sweeter than nectar and rarely 
attained even in the celestial realms. 


Here Sri Jayadeva addresses the savants and the celestial beings, "O learned 
ones, listen to the lamentation of this jilted young woman who has been 
deprived of the coveted pleasure of amorous union. This lamentation is sweeter 


than nectar. It is never possible to taste the nectar of her lamentation in the 
celestial world. The sweetest substance available there is the ambrosia of the 
demigods. This ambrosia is bitter in comparison with the lamentation of Radha, 
although the nectar of her lamentation is available to humans here on earth. 
Therefore those eager to constantly remember Radha-Krsna should definitely 
drink this incomparable nectar." 

In this song Radha is khandita ndyikd. The characteristics of the khandita 
heroine are: 


yasydh kuto pi patireti grham prabhdte 
sd khandeti kathitd kavibhih purdnaih 

"A beloved hero enters his heroine's abode from elsewhere in the morning time. 
He has been awake throughout the entire night. His eyes are red and his limbs 
are beautifully marked with scratches made by another young woman. Learned 
poets have called the heroine at that time khandita nayika." 

This seventeenth song of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Laksmtpati-ratndvalt, 
features megha rdga and the vipralambha aspect of srngdra-rasa and karuna- 

O^erse JO 

r=KltfU: SlUKfq forrfq ^t *H^lfd II Ro (I 

tavedam pasyantydh prasarad-anurdgam bahir iva 
priyd-pdddlakta-cchuritam aruna-dyoti-hrdayam 

mamddya prakhydta-pranaya-bhara-bhangena kitava 
tvad-dlokah sokdd apt kim api lajjdrh janayati 


Act GLtyht 


"O two-faced cheater! Being coloured by footlac from the feet of your dear 
vraja-gopi, today your radiant red heart is outwardly revealing the powerful 
loving thirst that lies within. On seeing this, my long-standing and renowned 
love for you is being cut asunder. It is shame alone that supersedes the sorrow I 
feel within my heart." 

Although Radha is now khanditd, she takes shelter of arrogance. Accusing 
Krsna, she says, "O charlatan! When you did not arrive on time, I continued 
to wait for you. Now my celebrated sympathy for you is being torn to 
pieces. How can I express myself? The pain I feel in separation from you is 
indescribable. I cannot decide whether to live or die. How did such a calamity 
befall me? I cannot live and I cannot die. 

"O traitor! Seeing you in this condition, I do not feel as much anguish as 
I feel shame. You have enjoyed union with a lusty woman and, by holding 
her feet upon your heart, your chest has become coloured red by her footlac. 
When I see the red glow of dawn, it seems as if today the anuraga you were 
carrying in your heart has overflowed. When I see the signs of that lover's 
pleasure where you used to wear the Kaustubha jewel, I become mortified 
with shame. 

"I used to make you feel the boundless happiness of pride in my exclusive 
confidential love for you. But now you have broken that connecting thread of 
prema by this contemptible behaviour. You have enjoyed loving her and you 
do not even feel ashamed about it. May you be blessed, Krsna. Now go away, 
unfaithful one. Why did I ever love you?" 

The chanda of this verse is sikharini. 



DKrsna considered, "Despite my determined endeavours, Radha will not 
abandon her obstinacy. So now I will have to take help from my envoy, the 
flute. It seems that I have no other alternative. Radhika's reluctance will surely 
be dispelled by the sound of my flute." Therefore Sri Jayadeva extends a 
benediction through the sound of Krsna's flute in the following verse. 

Q^erse 11 

W^|cbbJu|^r^tJu|H^IH^I: *<#k$IIHJ 

stabdhdkarsana-drsti-harsana-mahd-mantrah kurangi-drsdm 

bhramsah kamsa-ripor vyapohayatu vah sreydmsi vamsi-ravah 


The sound of Krsna's flute bewilders the hearts of the gopis. It makes their 
jewelled tiaras whirl and their elegant floral decorations fall. It drives away 
the irrepressible suffering of the celestials who have been sundered by the 
arrogant infernals. It makes doe-eyed women become stunned. It attracts 
them and increases the jubilation of their eyes. May that flute sound destroy all 
impediments on the path of auspiciousness for everyone. 


Sri Jayadeva bestows a benediction upon the singers and audience of Sri Gita- 
govinda through an auspicious invocation in this, the final verse of the Act 
Eight. "May the sound of Karhsari Krsna's flute expand its auspicious influence. 
This flute sound dispels the intolerable suffering of the celestials (devatas) 
caused by the arrogant infernals (danavas). It enchants the hearts of doe-eyed 


Act GLtyk 

women to such an extent that, immersed in bliss, their tiaras whirl and their 
heads begin to spin as they continuously stare in a state of bewilderment. The 
manddra flower garlands of the celestial nymphs in heaven break and begin 
to fall." 

The bewitching effect of Krsna's flute song is being described. Vastkrta- 
devatd, the presiding deity of the art of subjugating others by magical spells, 
says "Sddhu, sddhul Bravo!" and shakes his head in appreciation. The shaking 
of the head and the falling of manddra flowers indicates the mdrana of the 
flute. When a magical ceremony is performed for the destruction of one's 
enemy, that ritual is called mdrana. The power of Krsna's flute to stun and to 
attract is famous. On hearing this flute sound, the female deer of Vraja become 
attracted and remain motionless. Uccdtana, the magical power to make others 
abandon their occupational duties, is clearly evident in the sound of Krsna's 
flute. The power to create bewilderment in the core of another's heart is called 

The sound of Krsna's flute is thus endowed with the qualities of (1) 
mohanatva, (2) vasikaranatva, the magical power to enslave others, (3) 
stambhatva, to stun them, (4) dkarsanatva, to attract them, (5) uccdtanatva, 
to make them abandon their occupations, and (6) mdranatva, to destroy all 
opposing elements. Therefore Krsna's flute sound is the embodiment of the 
greatest incantation, mahd-mantra-svarupa. The spell-binding magic of this 
mahd-mantra is especially related to the gopis. 

In order to vanquish Radha's profound contrariness, Krsna began to play 
upon his flute, the sound of which is the greatest mystical incantation, endowed 
with the six effective methods for accomplishing one's objectives (sat-sddhana- 
sampanna mahd-mantra-svarupd) . 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 

Act Eight of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Vilaksya-laksmipati, 

on the subject q/'khandita nayika. 


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Q^erse J 

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tarn atha manmatha-khinnam rati-rasa-bhinnam visdda-sampannam 
anucintita-hari-caritdm kalahdntaritdm uvdca rahah sakht 


adha was severely oppressed by the arrows of Cupid and sorely 
disappointed to be deprived of the rapture of union with Krsna. She 
was separated from Krsna only as a consequence of her quarrelsome 

nature {kalahdntaritd ndyika). As she anxiously remembered Sri Hari's romantic 

activities, her companion spoke to her in a secluded place. 


Now Sri Jayadeva reveals Radha's mood that prompts her sakht to encourage her 
to accept Krsna and receive him with honour. 

Manmatha-khinnam - Radha feels acute distress from the affliction of kdma. 

Rati-rasa-bhinnam - She is thoroughly disappointed because she is bereft of 
the rasa of amorous pastimes. 

Visdda-sampannam - She has already reached the stage of conflicting 
emotions (bhdva-sabalata) because she is deeply attached to union with Krsna. 

Anucintita-hari-caritdm - Thoughts of Krsna's activities flow in an unbroken 
stream within her heart. 

Kalahdntaritdm - Although she sees her beloved falling at her feet in front of 
her friends, the heroine who severely reprimands him and denies his requests 
is called kalahdntaritd ndyika. Such a heroine is called kalahdntaritd because 
incoherent speech, anguish, debility and other activities such as drawing long 
breaths are evident in her behaviour. 

There are five prominent characteristics of Radha's kalahdntaritd condition: 
(1) Radha pours scorn on all the statements made by Krsna. She considers his 

reasonable explanations and submissive mood to be nothing but cunning 



(2) In her heart she makes a critical analysis of his behaviour and lodges various 
allegations against him out of loving anger. 

(3) The more he prostrates himself before her, the more her obstinacy increases. 

(4) Her anguish increases as she remembers all the misdemeanours committed 
by Krsna in the realm of her imagination. 

(5) She anxiously thinks about Krsna and nothing else. 





7: J --r: 

Qbong 18 

The musical mode is gurjari raga. The rhythm is j><2ft' fr?/a. 

Tnqt ttt ^R> HlfnfH HMH^I IIS^T? II 3 II 
dltf»-btfl<*fa wrirRT^TO I 

SpfrT ^ ^f«Jdfa<*mM<*Mf^HH I 

*TT Xff^T gftljft$W«ta<(H IITTTSI^o II tf II 

f+fafd M<iftl <lfafa f^lchc^l I 

fai^fd ^ctfd-H*fT r*eT -H*rtl ll^ra^o II k II 

*n*Htf|cMI Wf>^[ ^" IITTSlto || ^ || 

*H±|R4 *Rf*T Rhfafd M-Ms^H I 

*J*J tjtt eWHHdlted"*^? IHTTO^o II V3 II 

f*fafd ^rtfa i^mSrf^^T ii^ra^o n <* u 

*4<sWd Tf^wH *n-e|fedH UTTTSI^o II <* II 


harir abhisarati vahati madhu-pavane 
kim aparam adhika-sukham sakhi bhavane 

madhave ma kuru mdnini manam aye (refrain) (1) 


"O sulky woman, look! The gentle spring breeze is blowing and Krsna has come 
to your trysting chamber. My dear friend, what could be a greater source of 
happiness than this?" 


"O sakhi, now you should not be uncooperative with Laksmipati Madhava. He 
has appeared in the Madhu dynasty and he is immensely affluent. Nevertheless, 
he is continuously propitiating you. Give up your sulky mood. The spring 
breeze is blowing, and Hari has personally come to meet with you in your 
chamber. What could be a greater source of happiness than this? His arrival is 
the ultimate limit of happiness. O Radha, receive him with honour." 

Q^erse 3 

tdla-phaldd api gurum ati-sarasam 
kim viphali-kuruse kuca-kalasam 

madhave... (2) 

"Your waterpot-like breasts are heavier than perfectly ripened palm fruits and 
they are also full of rasa. Why are you making them useless?" 



The sakhi says, "O Radha, your pitcher-like breasts are better than palm fruit 
(Jala). In the rasa-sdstra palm fruit has been described as extremely heavy and 
juicy. The heaviness and juiciness of palm fruit become insignificant in the 
presence of your breasts. Therefore their usefulness lies only in Hari and the 
touch of Hari. The heaviness of those pitchers is just for him, so you are ruining 
their purpose." 

Radha's breasts have been compared to waterpots to express their immensity. 
"Give up your contrary mood and make Sri Hari realize the flavour of amorous 

Q^erse % 

kati na kathitam idam anupadam aciram 
ma parihara harim atisaya-ruciram 

mddhave... (3) 

"How many times do I have to tell you? Do not abandon the exceptionally 
handsome and charming Sri Hari." 


The sakhi says, "Radha, I am trying again and again to make you under- 
stand - do not be obstinate. The form and lustre of Sri Hari is most beautiful. 
Give up your sulky mood and meet with him. Change your attitude. Sri Hari 
is extremely pleasing. He steals the heart of everyone. It is never proper to 
abandon him." 


kim iti visidasi rodisi vikald 
vihasati yuvati-sabhd tava sakald 

mddhave... (4) 

"Why are you so overwhelmed with lamentation? Why are you weeping? Your 
youthful rivals are delighted to see your 'alluring gestures'." 


After hearing the advice of her companion, Radha is still sobbing. The sakhi 
says, "Radha, why are you upset now? Why are you crying? Seeing your method 
of seduction, your rivals are mocking you. How foolish you are. Sri Hari is 
rolling on the ground at your feet and you just go on crying." 

O^erse 6 

harim avalokaya saphalaya nayane 

mddhave... (5) 

"Make your eyes successful by gazing lovingly at Sri Krsna as he reclines upon a 
cool bed of moist lotus petals." 


The sakhi tells Radha, "Look, in this meeting place Sri Hari has laid down upon 
a bed of cool lotus petals that is adorned with diamonds and pearls. Look at 
him. How can you quarrel with the very person for want of whom you are 
suffering? He is waiting for you, but you will not abandon your wounded pride." 


janayasi manasi kim iti guru-khedam 
srnu mama vacanam anthita-bhedam 

madhave... (6) 

"Why are you so agitated in your heart of hearts? Listen to me. I am speaking 
only for your benefit, without any ulterior motive." 


Even after hearing the suggestions of her friend, Radha was still upset. The 
sakhi added, "O my dear friend, why has your heart become so inimical? Why 
are you unnecessarily suspicious? Why are you being so problematic? I can see 
that you have become apathetic, inactive and disinterested from the lacerating 
experience of separation. Pay attention! Listen to me. I only desire your welfare. 
Just understand this - there is no difference between you and Sri Krsna." 

Q^erse 8 

harir upaydtu vadatu bahu-madhuram 
kim iti karosi hrdayam ati-vidhuram 

madhave... (7) 

"Allow Sri Hari to come close to you. Allow him to speak some sweet words. 
Why are you inflicting even more pain upon your own heart?" 


Radha's sakhi says, "Dear Radha, let Hari come close to you. Let him speak 
sweet words. It is not befitting for you to remain apart from him. Make yourself 
happy by listening to his words of flattery and thereby also make him blissful. 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


Your heart is anxious for him, so why are you resisting? You are uselessly 
betraying your own heart. It is improper to inflict suffering upon yourself by 
sulking in this way Give up your mdna" 

Q^erse 9 

srt-jayadeva-bhanitam ati-lalitam 
sukhayatu rasika-janam hari-caritam 

mddhave... (8) 


May this exquisite description of Sri Hari's activities composed by SrIJayadeva 
increase the happiness of the devotees who are expert in relishing rasa. 


This eighteenth song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Amanda-mukunda. 
The only purpose and fruit of this song is the pleasure of Sri Hari and the 
devotees who are expert in tasting the integration of transcendental ecstasies. 
SrIJayadeva says, "I have described Sri Krsna's beautiful activities. May they 
bring joy to the hearts of the pure devotees." 

Q^erse JO 

ft=rr£ ikM^Nlf+l ^IdJUIHfd W<&Jlfa ^iPlFui 

^rwftr ^-H<si kwydi ^ihiRh h^mP^ i 

sfidi^JWml %H ^?raF: *UlH<0 ^TTtRT: II Ro || 

snigdhe yat parusdsi yat pranamati stabdhasi yad rdgini 
dvesasthdsi yad unmukhe vimukhatdm ydtdsi tasmin priye 

tadyuktam viparita-kdrini tava srikhanda-carcd visarh 
sttdmsus tapano himarh hutavahah krtdd-mudo ydtandh 



"O Radha, Sri Krsna has earnestly appealed to you with humble words but in 
response you have simply become harsh. He has bowed before you but you 
have turned your face away and ignored him. How much deep love he has 
shown you, yet you are hostile towards him. He is fully attentive to you but you 
are completely averse to him. 

"O you whose behaviour is totally perverse! Your contrariness makes 
sandalwood paste seem like poison; the gentle, refreshing moon seem as harsh 
as the sun; cooling camphor seem like fire; and the happiness of lovemaking 
seem like dreadful agony." 


When Radha did not reply or even respond in any way, her sakhi said, "Radha, 
what has happened to you this time? You are completely obstinate. How 
inconsistent your behaviour is. You were burning in anxiety for his love, yet 
now that he has come to meet with you, your attitude has surprisingly reversed 
and you are letting this golden opportunity slip through your fingers. 

"Krsna has so much tender affection for you, but you are harsh and cruel to 
him. He is bowing at your feet while you arrogantly stand up and rebuke him 
with abrasive words. He has all good qualities. Just see how much attachment 
he has for you, but still you are hostile towards him. How he looks upon your 
beautiful face with whole-hearted attention, joy and eagerness. Yet you remain 
unaffected and indifferent to him. 

"Perhaps your intelligence has capsized. Your behaviour is antithetical, so 
naturally on such a happy occasion sandalwood paste burns you like venom, 
the cool rays of the moon seem to be as oppressive as the scorching heat of the 
sun, camphor burns you like fire and the joy of lovemaking seems miserable. 
Your mind is pervaded by pessimism. Abandon this contrary behaviour at once." 



O^erse 11 


^lfa^M«Nfa^H$mW>^W cKIH^ II W II 

sdndrdnanda-purandarddi-divisad-vrndair amandddardd 
dnamrair mukutendranila-manibhih sandarsitendindiram 

svacchandam makaranda-sundara-galan-manddkinl-meduram 
sri-govinda-paddravindam asubha-skanddya vanddmahe 

When Sri Krsna deflated the pride of King Bali, the celestials were immersed 
in bliss. As they bowed to him with the utmost reverence, the reflected lustre 
of the sapphires on their crowns made his feet seem to be blue lotus flowers. 
The charming Ganges flows effortlessly and spontaneously like honey from 
the lotus of those feet. We pray to Sri Krsna's lotus feet, the vanquishers of all 


A revelation of Radha's greatness illuminated Sri Jayadeva's heart when 
he remembered Krsna's flattering words. Therefore he describes Krsna's 
opulence in this verse to establish the extent of Radha's good fortune. He says, 
'Along with my disciples and their disciples, I offer prayers to the lotus feet of 
Sri Govinda because those lotus feet subdue the inauspiciousness that impedes 
the development of transcendental love." 

In this verse Bhagavan Sri Krsna's feet have been compared to attractive 
lotus flowers enhanced by fragrant pollen in the form of the spontaneous flow 
of the celestial Ganges. The celestials headed by Indra blissfully offer prostrated 
obeisances at Krsna's lotus feet like bumblebees adorning a pollen-covered 
lotus. When they bow down, the aura of sapphires and other jewels upon 


their crowns falls upon Krsna's feet, which then appear to be blue lotuses. As 
humming bumblebees hover around blue lotuses, the hearts of the devotees 
eternally hover around the lotus feet of Krsna and perpetually sing their glories. 
The yogis continually meditate upon his lotus feet for the annihilation of their 

What is the significance of describing the glories of the lotus feet of 
Sri Mukunda? How curious it is that Mukunda is now perplexed about how 
to pacify Radha's pique. What can be said of Radha's glories? Mukunda is 
personally praying to hold her lotus feet upon his head. 

Krsna's feet have been compared to lotuses, the Ganges to fragrant pollen, 
and crest-jewels such as sapphires to bumblebees. Therefore this verse features 
rupaka alankdra. The chanda is sdrdula-vikridita. 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 
Act Nine of Sri Gita-govinda entitled Mugdha-mukunda. 


II ^R: ^f:ll 




r Che (^our-armed flatterer 

QPerse J 
«wi$wm<* ^RR^jciw ii \ ii 

atrantare masrna-rosa-vasdm aslma- 

nihsvdsa-nihsaha-mukhtm sumukhtm upetya 

savridam iksita-sakhi-vadandrh pradose 
sdnanda-gadgada-padam harir ity uvdca 


hen the day drew to a close, Sri Hari could no longer tolerate 
Radha's long indignant sighs. She looked shyly at the face of her 
intimate friend. Then Sri Hari approached the beautiful Radha and, 
blooming with joy, he began to speak to her in a voice choked with emotion. 


Radha's friend tried to make her understand the situation so that she would 
lighten up, but Radha's fury did not wane. In the meantime, the day was 
drawing to a close. Now Radha lets out long sighs in the pain of separation. Her 
lotus face looks dejected. After trying all possible methods to alleviate Radha's 
obstinacy, her friend has fallen silent. Radha feels the perplexity of love. She 
has just neglected Krsna, so how can she suddenly about-face and desire his 
company? This is her dilemma. Therefore she is looking shyly in the direction 
of her sakhi. Depression has cast a shadow. Krsna thought that Sri Radha must 
be feeling regretful by this time in the evening. "Let me go to her at once. I will 
accept all her accusations and, keeping them in mind, I will beg for forgiveness." 
Then he approached Radha and, blooming with joy, he began to plead with her 
in a voice choked with loving emotions. 


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Act <Ut 


O^erse 2 

vadasi yadi kincid api danta-ruci-kaumudi harati dara-timiram ati-ghoram 
sphurad-adhara-stdhave tava vadana-candramd rocayatu locana-cakoram 

priye! cdrusile! munca mayi mdnam aniddnam 

sapadi madandnalo dahati mama mdnasam 
dehi mukha-kamala-madhu-pdnam (refrain) (1) 


"My beloved, O graceful one, give up this causeless aversion. If you will speak 
to me, even a little, the terrible darkness of my fear will be dispelled by the 
effulgent rays of your teeth. Then your moonlike face will make the cakora bird 
of my eyes anxious to drink the nectar of your lips. The fire of amorous desire is 
burning my heart. Allow me to drink the honey of your lotus face." 


Krsna says to Radha, "My darling, although your temperament is exceptionally 
virtuous, the contrary mood you have adopted towards me with such a fixed 
resolve and for no good reason is quite improper. While you have been sulking, 
I have been burning in the fire of kdma. And there is no reason for you to be in 
a huff. Your suspicion that I have another lover is in vain. 

"Amorous desire inflicts pain upon me only in the absence of your shelter. 
Make me drink the honey of your lotus face so that my internal fire may be 
extinguished. I know this honey is extremely difficult to attain, so if you will not 
do this, then just say something. You may speak something complimentary or 
even something derogatory, but at least say something. 

"When you speak, your lotus face will bloom. The moonbeams of your 
teeth will shine and thus the darkness of fear within my heart will be dispelled. 
Radha, such nectar is flowing from your moonlike face that the cakora birds of 
my eyes want to drink this enlivening juice. My beloved, you whose disposition 
is so pleasing! You alone are the life and soul of my eyes." 


O^erse 3 

satyam evdsiyadi sudati mayi kopini 

dehi khara-nayana-sara-ghdtam 
ghataya bhuja-bandhanam janaya rada-khandanam 

yena vd bhavati sukha-jdtam 

priye! cdrusile!... (2) 


"O you whose teeth are radiant, if you are genuinely angry with me, then strike 
me with the sharp arrows of your glance. Bind me in the ropes of your arms. 
Cut my lips with the biting of your teeth. Do whatever will make you happy." 


To pacify Radha, Krsna says, "My dearest Radha, whose teeth shine so brightly, 
do not be angry with me. If you really want to express your anger against me, 
then strike me with the sharp arrows of your eyes. And if your anger is still not 
pacified, then punish me even more. Bind me in the ropes of your arms and 
imprison me. If you are still not satisfied, then injure my body by biting me with 
your teeth. And if you are still not satisfied, then just do whatever you feel is 
appropriate. I am fit to be rebuked and worthy of punishment. You may arrange 
any type of punishment for me for the sake of your own happiness." 

Krsna is ardently requesting Radha to scratch, embrace and kiss him, on the 
pretext of punishing him by striking, binding and biting. 

O^erse % 

Warn asi mama bhusanam Warn asi mamajtvanam 

Warn asi mama bhava-jaladhi-ratnam 
bhavatu bhavatiha mayi satatam anurodhint 

tatra mama hrdayam ati-yatnam 

priye! cdrusile!... (3) 


Act ^en 


"You are my only ornament. You are my very life. You are the jewel in the 
ocean of my existence. Always remain favourably disposed to me - this is the 
exclusive object of my endeavours." 


Radha might say, "Krsna, I cannot give you punishment. You have other lovers 
who are dearer than I. Go and beg from them." With this apprehension, Krsna 
says, "My beloved, you are my perfect and complete adornment. I am fortunate 
in all respects only when I am decorated by you. To say nothing of external 
ornaments, you are the very foundation of my life. You are my prana! Without 
you I cannot even live. So where is the question of other lovers? 

"You are the incomparable treasure in the ocean of my material existence. 
As one considers himself successful upon attaining a wonderful jewel from the 
ocean, I feel that my life is successful, having found the jewel of a lover like you. 
Therefore, always remain favourably disposed to me - my heart continually 
strives only for this. All my endeavours are simply for the sake of receiving your 

Q^erse S 

nila-nalindbham api tanvi tava locanam dhdrayati kokanada-rupam 
kusumasara-bdna-bhdvena yadi ranjayasi krsnam idam etad anurupam 

priye! cdrustle!... (4) 


"O slender woman, your blue lotus-like eyes have now become reddish. It 
would be befitting if you were to colour this dark-complexioned body with your 
wanton sidelong glance." 



Krsna says, "Radha, your eyes naturally resemble blue lotus flowers. You are 
expert in colouring your eyes with the redness of ever-fresh and increasing 
anurdga. If you were to accept me on the strength of this quality, then my 
life would be a grand success. But now your eyes have abandoned their 
nature and assumed the colour of a red lotus. This is your science of dyeing 
(anuranjini-vidya). You are clearly proficient in making dark coloured 
substances become red. 

"Therefore, if you were to pierce me with arrows of amorous desire in the 
form of your sidelong glance, I would consider your knowledge befittingly 
employed. Radha, give up your anger and make love to me. Just become 
absorbed in the sport of sensuality (kama-krida) . This is natural for you." 

sphuratu kuca-kumbhayor upari mani-manjart ranjayatu tava hrdaya-desam 
rasatu rasandpi tava ghana-jaghana-mandale ghosayatu manmatha-nidesam 

priye! cdrustle!... (5) 


"May this necklace of jewels shine brilliantly upon your pitcher-like breasts and 
enhance the beauty of your heart. May this sash of bells splendidly adorning 
your firm buttocks proclaim the order of Cupid." 


Through indirect suggestions, Krsna is praying to Radha and begging her 
to unite with him in love-games. "May our auspicious kdma-keli begin. Give 
up your shyness. You are ready for the game of sensual love. Before making 
love it is necessary to perform the ritual establishment of full waterpots. May 
this jewelled necklace enhance the beauty of your pitcher-shaped breasts 
when it swings to and fro. May the sash of bells encircling the broad centre of 
your voluptuous hips announce the order of Kamadeva's rising ambitions by 


Act ^en 

resounding with a sweet kina-kina sound as we make love. The order is, 'May 
all men and women, who are intent upon love-play during this intoxicating 
spring season, be immersed in amorous activities. All contrary women - give up 
your resistance and enthusiastically contest in the erotic sports.'" 

sthala-kamala-ganjanam mama hrdaya-ranjanam 


bhana masrna-vdni karavdni carana-dvayam 


priye! cdrustle!... (6) 


"O softly spoken one, your feet defeat the beauty of a land lotus and increase 
the lustre of my heart. They expand the abundance of kdrna at the time of 
making love. Just order me to colour those feet with footlac." 


So far Radha has not replied to any of Krsna's suggestions. Therefore, 
encouraging her to speak, he says, "O softly spoken one, you speak such sweet 
words! Release the arrow of your tender words. Order me with your gentle 
whisper. These two feet eclipse the beauty of the hibiscus flower. May I paint 
footlac upon these feet that colour my heart, so that when we enjoy love-play, 
their enhanced beauty will arouse excessive kama?. When they are red, may 
they make my heart red (rdgd). 

"O you who speak so endearingly, these painted feet will assume an 
indescribable splendour in the rasa of our erotic amusement. They are the 
charming reservoir of srngdra-rasa. They are the door to the arousal of sexual 
passion. They initiate the upsurge of desire. O graceful one, give up your 
contrary mood. On seeing the charming, painted feet of a beautiful young 
woman, the minds of young men become overwhelmed with sensual desires." 


Q^erse 8 

smara-garala-khandanam mama sirasi mandanam 

dehi pada-pallavam uddram 

jvalati mayi ddruno madana-kadandnalo 6 

haratu tad-updhita-vikdram 

priye! cdrusile!... (7) 


"My beloved! Offer the fresh buds of your enchanting feet as an ornament upon 
my head, so the devastating effect of Cupid's poison may be alleviated and the 
harsh fire of amorous desires may also be relieved." 


"Radha! My suffering will be vanquished only when you accept me. I am 
overwhelmed by an epiphany (sphurti) of your all-conquering qualities, and 
I pray to you to kindly place the freshly sprouted buds of your feet upon my 
head. Your lotus feet are munificent. They fulfil the innermost cherished desires 
of those who pray to them. They are ornaments because they are red, soft 
and cool like new petals. If you were to place them upon my head, my head 
would be decorated and simultaneously the poisonous effect of kdma would be 

Krsna has likened kdma to the venom of a snake. "The touch of your feet 
will counteract the poison of kdma in the same way that snake's poison is 
rendered ineffectual by the touch of Garuda's feet. Even my defects, such 
as the modifications of my mind arising from the heat of kdma, will cease 
when you offer your feet to me. The suffering created by kdma is dire. It 
burns my heart exactly like fire. Every vital limb of my body is turning into 
smouldering charcoal. The fever of kdma that burns me within and without will 
be vanquished only when you place the fresh buds of your feet upon my head." 

Some editions of the text read madana-kadanarunah - "The affliction of desire burns with 
the intensity of the blazing sun." 


Act <Ut 


Throughout this song the nayika, Radha, is praudha and manavati. Krsna is 
anukula ndyaka. 

iti catula-cdtu-patu-cdru mura-vairino rddhikdm adhi vacana-jdtam 
jayati padmdvati-ramana-jayadeva-kavi-bhdrati-bhanitam ati-sdtam 

priyef cdrustlef... (8) 


Sri Jayadeva, the beloved of Padmavati, has related the tender, flattering words 
spoken by the enemy of Mura to Radha. May these sweet, enchanting words be 


The statements of Sri Krsna, elicited by the contrariness and contempt of his 
most beloved Radha, are both delightful and pertinent because they brilliantly 
illuminate his intense hankering. May they be triumphant in every respect. 

This charming poem contains ingenious flattery and endearing sweet- 
talk. May it conquer the hearts of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna (padmdvatt-ramana). 
Alternatively, padmdvatt-ramana refers to the talented poet Sri Jayadeva, the 
husband of Padmavati. Krsna came personally in the guise of Sri Jayadeva 
and wrote the line, dehi pada-pallavam uddram, which had been revealed to 
Sri Jayadeva in his trance of devotion. 

This nineteenth song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Catura-bhuja-rdgardji- 



O^erse JO 

trf?FT <J>dld^ ^Ift ^RIT fRTrt ^T- 

WHvji fcH^I*l^ ^TF# iKMclcMfelPl I 

MU|R|[d trftTP^TT^ f^% f^farTFT II ^o || 

parihara krtdtanke sankdrh tvayd satatam ghana- 
stana-jaghanayd-krdnte svdnte pardn-avakdsini 

visati vitanor anyo dhanyo na ko pi mamdntaram 
pranayini parirambhdrambhe vidhehi vidheyatdm 


"O my empathetic lover, be done with the useless suspicion that I am attached 
to another heroine. O Radha of firm breasts and buttocks! There is no room in 
my heart for another heroine. With the exception of the unembodied Cupid, no 
one else has the fortune to enter. Now command me to embrace you." 


Krsna reasons with his beloved Radha, "Why has this apprehension uselessly 
arisen within your heart? Do not accuse me of associating with another 
young mistress. My heart and mind are so overpowered by the weight of your 
waterpot-like breasts and your heavy hips that I have no opportunity even to 
remember anyone else. Your love has invaded and completely pervaded my 
heart, so there is not even the slightest room left for another mistress. How can 
anyone else enter my mind? Because you reside there, no one has the good 
fortune to enter except for Cupid. My beloved Radha, now abandon your mdna 
so that I may embrace your round breasts. Make me your servant and grant me 
the permission to do just that." 

This verse features the chanda called harini and the alankdra called 
kdvyalinga. Radha is praudhd ndyikd and Krsna is pragalbhd ndyaka. 


Act ^en 

O^erse 11 
^f&^ ccpfc ^nr h msmiui- 

mugdhe vidhehi mayi nirdaya-danta-damsa- 

candi Warn eva mudam anca na panca-bdna- 
cdnddla-kdnda-dalandd asavah praydntu 


"O bewildered one, if I am an offender, then why are you hesitating to punish 
me? Punish me at once. Cruelly bite me with your teeth and bind me tightly 
with your slender creeper-like arms. Crush me with your hard breasts. O angry 
woman, find happiness by punishing me in this way. If my life-air departs as a 
result of such a severe punishment, then good, let it go. But may my prana not 
depart from the impact of the miscreant Kamadeva's arrow." 


Sri Krsna pleads, "O bewildered one, if you have no faith in my words, then you 
can punish me. You are so wrathful that you are not even trying to understand 
what I have to say. So just punish me as you like. That rogue Cupid is trying to 
kill me with his five arrows. Kindly grant me the benediction that my prana will 
not depart. 

"O you who are unaware of your own best interests - do not be so hot- 
tempered. I am being pierced by the arrows of Kamadeva and now my prana 
is leaving only because of you. Please save me. May you find satisfaction in 
punishing me. Mercilessly bite me with your teeth. Crush me with your firm 
breasts. Bind me tightly in your creeper-like arms. Laugh at me and say, 'Now 
you are my prisoner and you will never escape!'" 


sasimukhi tava bhdti bhangura-bhrur 

tad-udita-bhaya-bhanjandya yundrii 

tvad-adhara-sidhu-sudhaiva siddha-mantrah 


"O woman with a radiant moonlike face, the curving vine of your eyebrow 
overwhelms the hearts of young men. It resembles a female snake who even 
defeats the terrible influence of time itself. The intoxicating nectar flowing from 
your lips is the only siddha-mantra to dispel the fear created by your eyebrow." 


Krsna is employing vdtsydyana-nydya, the logic of Vatsyayana Rsi, the author of 
Kdma-sutra. "O Sasimukhi, although your face is as pleasant as the moon, your 
curved eyebrows can bewilder young men, just like the fearsome female serpent 
of time. Your eyebrows generate intense fear, and oh, they look so malicious. 
But you are Sasimukhi (moon-face), so do not be angry with young men. No 
young man can be saved once bitten by the female snake of time. There is no 
medicine to relieve the burning of this poison. Only a siddha-mantra, in the 
form of the nectar of your lips, can counteract a poisonous bite from the snake 
of your eyebrow." 

The chanda of this verse is puspitdgrd. The alankdras are kalpitopamd and 


Act 'Vcn 

Qptfrse 13 

oWTfrT f«IT *tNt rTf^ UMsW XJ^TT 

W^HfaswRsHsft tf£ f^vSWrfeRT: II ^ II 

vyathayati vrthd maunarh tanvi prapancaya pancamam 
taruni madhurdlapais tdpam vinodaya drstibhih 

sumukhi vimukht-bhdvam tdvad vimunca na mufica mam 
svayam atisaya-snigdho mugdhe priyo 'yam upasthitah 


"O slender woman, your futile adherence to silence is torturing me. O youthful 
one, sing out in the fifth musical mode. Deliver me from this torment with your 
sweet conversation and compassionate glance. O you whose countenance is 
comely, do not abandon me - abandon your indifference. O you who are bereft 
of proper discrimination, your affectionate beloved is present before you." 


So far, Radha has not responded to any of Krsna's suggestions. Now he appeals 
to her with courteous words. "O slender woman, how emaciated you have 
become. Your silence is gnawing away at you and giving so much pain to 
me - all for no reason. 

"Begin to sing in pancama rdga. Be soft-hearted. In spring, passionate 
women follow the example of their dearmost beloveds. Your voice is sweeter 
than that of a cuckoo. Converse sweetly. Make the rain of rasa fall upon me 
by your glance. O young woman, vanquish all my suffering with your merciful 

"O pretty one, it is not proper for you to disregard me. Give up your 
indifference. Abandon your pride. Do not abandon me. O bewildered one, 
O you who are bereft of proper discrimination, I am your beloved. I am devoted 


QS/f ^§)ita-$0vindc 


to you with tender affection. I am here without invitation. Look - I am standing 
before you with tears in my eyes. Bind me with your affectionate glance." 

This verse includes harini chanda, yathdsamratna alankdra, prasdda guna, 
kaisiki vrtti, vaidarbhl riti and mdgadhl giti. The hero is anukula ndyaka. 

bandhuka-dyuti-bdndhavo 'yam adharah snigdho madhuka-cchavir 
gandas candi cakdsti nlla-nalina-sri-mocane locanam 

ndsdbhyeti tila-prasuna-padavlm kunddbha-danti priye 

prdyas tvan-mukha-sevayd vijayate visvarh sa puspdyudhah 


"My beloved Candi, O hot-tempered woman, your enchanting red lips are 
friends with the lustre of a bandhuka flower. Your cool cheeks have assumed 
the splendour of a madhuka flower. Your eyes eclipse the beauty of a blue lotus 
flower. Your nose is like a sesame flower. Your teeth are as radiant as jasmine 
blossoms. O beloved, the flower archer Kamadeva worshipped your face with 
his five flower arrows and then conquered the entire universe." 


Krsna addresses Radha as Candi (hot-tempered woman) because she is still 
angry. "My dearest! Five weapons shine upon your lotus face like the weapons 
of the flower archer, Kamadeva. O passionate woman, by borrowing flower 
weapons from you, the highly acclaimed conqueror of the universe, Kamadeva, 
dominates the entire creation. After conquering the universe, those weapons 
repose radiantly upon your face." 


Act ^en 

The special characteristics of Kamadeva's five arrows are as follows: 

(1) "Your lips are as red as a scarlet mallow flower. They are Kamadeva's red 
enthralling arrow (dkarsana-bdnd)" 

(2) "Your cool cheeks have the elegant golden-white lustre of a madhuka 
flower, as if nectar is just about to ooze from within. They are Kamadeva's 
honey-coloured arrow of subjugation by enchantment (vasikamna-bdnd)." 

(3) "Your blue eyes have eclipsed the beauty of blue lotus flowers, after 
amalgamating within themselves the essence of all beauty. They are 
Kamadeva's dark blue intoxicating arrow (unmddana-bdnd) ." 

(4) "Your nose resembles a sesame flower. This is his melting arrow (drdvana- 

(5) "Your teeth are like jasmine flowers. They are Kamadeva's white draining 
arrow (sosana-bdnd)" 

"In this way, Kamadeva attained your mercy by serving your face with all five 
weapons. On the strength of that mercy he conquers the entire universe." 
This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and utpreksd alankdra. 

O^erse IS 

drsau tava maddlase vadanam indu-sandipanarh 
gatir jana-manoramd vijita-rambham uru-dvayam 

ratis tava kaldvati rucira-citra-lekhe bhruvdv 
aho vibudha-yauvatam vahasi tanvi prthvt-gatd 


"O slender woman, how astonishing it is! Although you are present on the 
surface of this earth, you appear to be one of the magical nymphs of heaven. 


The ocean of your large blue eyes is indolent due to ardent passion like 
Madalasa. Your face is as radiant as the moonlight goddess, Indumatl. You walk 
like the heavenly goddess Manorama. Your two thighs have defeated the thighs 
of the celestial beauty, Rambha. You are accomplished in the art of lovemaking 
like Kalavati; and your eyebrows are as captivating as those of Citralekha." 


"O slender-waisted Radhika, although you are situated upon this earth planet, it 
seems as if all the heavenly goddesses are residing within you. The intoxicating 
effect of pride in the good fortune of having your lover at your feet has made 
your eyes become tired. 

"Therefore, although you are my woman, your jubilant pride suggests that 
you keep the celestial angel, Madalasa, in your eyes. Your face is the abode of 
Indumatl, the consort of Candrama, the moon deity; yet it is even more essential 
for me than moonlight is for the moon. Candrama's heart fills with jealousy 
upon seeing your face, because he has no power in comparison with you. The 
way you walk gives joy to everyone. Therefore the angel Manorama resides 
in you. Your thighs defame the trunk of a plantain tree, as if they were the 
residence of Rambha. Your movements are embellished with all the seductive 
arts such as hdva, bhdva, vildsa and kilakincita. Therefore you are the abode of 
the celestial named Kalavati. Your eyebrows are so perfect and charming that 
they appear to have been painted by an artist. 

"Although you reside upon the surface of the earth (prthvi), it seems that 
you have descended from above to extend the youthful qualities of the celestial 
goddesses. In other words, your youthfulness is divine." 

Therefore, this verse features prthvl chanda and kalpitopamd alankdra. 



Act 'Vcn 

Q^erse 16 

^^TT^T^Trt f^fTftrfrT c^llH^cblrtl^rt: II ^ II 

saprltim tanutdm harih kuvalaydptdena sdrdham rane 

rddhd-plna-payodhara-smarana-krt-kumbhena sambhedavdn 

yatra svidyati mllati ksanam api ksipte dvipe tat-ksandt 
kamsasydlam abhut jitarh jitam iti vydmoha-koldhalah 


On seeing the highly protruding cranial globes of the elephant Kuvalayaplda, 
Bhagavan Sri Hari remembered the large, round breasts of Sri Radha. He 
perspired profusely during the fight when the elephant's touch awakened his 
absorption in ananga-rasa. The closing of his eyes created a tremendous uproar 
from the crowd. Sounds of joy and confusion abounded as the supporters 
of Karhsa first cried out, "We have won! We have won!" and then Krsna's 
supporters cried out, "We have won! We have won!" when he killed the 
elephant. May that Bhagavan Sri Hari increase the bliss of the entire universe. 


In this verse Sri Jayadeva bestows a benediction upon everyone. Krsna is so 
absorbed in glorifying the qualities of his beloved Radha that he remembers the 
happiness of her touch even in an extremely perilous situation. May that Sri Hari 
increase your love. When Krsna fought with Karhsa's elephant, Kuvalayaplda, 
he saw the elephant's protruding cranial globes and was reminded of Radha's 
large, round breasts. Krsna's body manifested transformations (sdttvika-bhdvd) 
when touched by the elephant, as if he had been touched by Radha. Krsna 
closed his eyes in bliss, overwhelmed by memories of the joy of union with 
Radha. Then the courtiers of Karhsa were delighted and exclaimed, "We have 


won. Krsna has closed his eyes in fear." As soon as Krsna heard the tumultuous 
sound of confused statements, he suppressed his feelings, beat the elephant to 
the ground and quickly killed him. Suddenly, a great commotion arose amongst 
the courtiers of the inimical party, "Krsna has won? He has won!" This uproar 
was delightful. 

Act Ten has described Krsna's agitation on remembering Radha. His loss of 
composure makes him look extraordinarily charming. 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 
Act Ten of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Catura-caturbhuja 7 . 

7 In some editions this chapter is entitled Mugdha-madhava. 


A,ct QLleven 


c Uhe Q&lissful ffewherd (58<%> 

'Mclfd $d<W %ST^ *^$|U4IH I 

^frT PhcWKJ gnftT TTSTT *FTT^ II * II 

suciram anunayena prinayitvd mrgdkslm 

gatavati krtavese kesave kunja-sayydm 
racita-rucira-bhusdrh drsti-mose pradose 

sphurati niravasdddm kdpi rddhdrh jagdda 


fter satisfying the doe-eyed Radha with humble entreaties for a long 
time, Krsna went away. He dressed himself in enchanting attire and 
began to wait for her on a bed in the chamber of a forest grove. In 
the meantime, as visibility became obscured by the arrival of twilight, a sakht 
spoke to Radha, who was decorated in a variety of bewitching ornaments. 


Krsna continued to plead with Radha until late into the day. Finally, Radha 
became pleased with him and he confidently set off to prepare a play-bed in 
the chamber of a nikunja. The doe-eyed Radha was shining with joy. When 
her dejection and despair disappeared without a trace, jubilation pervaded the 
ecstatic emotions overflowing in her doe-like eyes and her heart began to swell 
with elation. She covered herself with a blue garment to conceal her movements 
through the forest and she decorated herself with fascinating ornaments that 
would also pass unseen by others. To intensify Radha's eagerness to meet with 
Krsna, her friend remarked emphatically, a Radha! Now do you believe that 
Madhusudana adores you or not?" 

The word pradosa indicates that night is falling. At this time, nothing is clearly 

The chanda of the present verse is mdlinl. 



. -i _ 

Mgi c?2j)gv^ 


. -.-- c - , 





:ene Twenty 

-"r^ ."-? v "' -------- 



QSbong 20 

The musical mode is vasanta rdga. The rhythm is j/aft' fr?/a. 
(^^d-clldcl-cH^H xRTlt ^dHlumidH I 

^3to#F^R^% f^% mitffd*UH ll*f^° 'I ? II 
*$Rd*H#d<$c|$||fec| ^id^RMR^W I 

^ cw±isbf"id^ci<si)si*r ifarfa PwitaiW^ \\w§o n <* u 

^l^^ruidH^l^dgNH^lfad-MH^ I 
^RI^lH^dHdfllMRlfd&d cbU<JddlMkmHH ll*F&> II <? II 


:-- : " 






Jkct GLleven 

viracita-cdtu-vacana-racanam carane racita-pranipatam 
samprati manjula-vanjula-stmani keli-sayanam anuydtam 

mugdhe! madhu-mathanam anugatam anusara rddhike! (refrain) (1) 


"O guileless one, he who bows down at your feet and humbly supplicates you 
with words of flattery, is presently reposing upon a play-bed in a bower of 
flowering vines in the delightful asoka forest. Follow in the footsteps of the 
destroyer of Madhu and meet with him at once." 


The sakhi said, "Radhika, the enemy of Madhu has become completely sub- 
missive to you. Go to his side at once. Do not delay. He has humbly appealed 
to you with endearing words. He has wholeheartedly fallen at your feet. He 
has prepared to welcome you and now he is sitting upon a bed suitable for 
amorous love-games within an asoka grove. Follow his footsteps to that place. 
O bewildered one, how naive you are. You do not even know when to go for a 
rendezvous with your beloved. Go to him at once and reciprocate with him in 
every way." 

Rddhike -The suffix ka sheds light upon Radha's state of guileless innocence. 

The refrain is "Follow Madhusudana. Do not delay." Characteristics of 
the grove, such as asoka trees, have been mentioned because they stimulate 


O^erse 3 

ghana-jaghana-stana-bhdra-bhare dara-manthara-carana-vihdram 
mukharita-mani-manfiram upaihi vidhehi mardla-nikdram 

mugdhef... (2) 


"O Radha, you who are burdened with heavy breasts and hips. With your gait 
that defeats the elegant motion of a royal swan, go to meet Krsna. Make an 
enchanting sound with your jewelled ankle-bells as you walk at a graceful 


"O Radha, your cumbersome hips and large breasts cause you to stoop. Go 
gently. Your slow, rhythmical motion embarrasses the movement of swans. 
Be graciously present in the love chamber of charming arbour. Take steps in 
such a way that the musical sound of your jewelled ankle-bells may arouse the 
passionate rasa. 

"O guileless one, place your unsteady feet upon the earth. Defeat the gait of 
a swan. Go now to the side of Madhusudana. Do not delay. Make these jewelled 
ankle-bells resound." 

Q^erse % 

srnu ramanlya-taram taruni-jana-mohana-madhuripu-rdvam 
kusuma-sardsana-sdsana-vandinipika-nikare bhaja bhdvam 

mugdhef... (3) 


"Listen to the delightful words of the bumblebees that bewilder the hearts of 
young women. Realize your own moods in the singing of the cuckoos, who 
propagate the sweet orders of Kandarpa." 


Jkct GLleven 


"Sakhi, set off at once. Many auspicious signs have appeared for the sake of 
your tryst. In spring, the sound of humming bumblebees resounds in all four 
directions. They are anxious to sing in harmony with the chime of your ankle- 
bells. Listen to the drone of the bumblebees. This sound bewilders the hearts of 
attractive young women. As bumblebees are dark, Krsna is also dark (sydrnd). 
The humming of the bees signals the time for trysting and fills the hearts of 
young women with auspiciousness. Indeed, whose mind is not swayed by their 
polite flattering appeals? 

"Look! Listen! In this spring month of Madhu the cuckoos call out with a 
shrill cry in pursuance of the order of Kamadeva. It is as if they are also the 
bards of Kamadeva and their fifth note is proclaiming his order. Combine your 
moods with those of the cuckoos. Let the order of Kamadeva be manifest far 
and wide. With the beating of drums, announce the order of the flower archer. 
His order is, 'May all sensual young men and women engage in unrestrained 

Madhuripu-ravam - The word tnadhuripu, meaning "bumblebee", alludes to 

The cuckoos' stimulating effect (vibhavd) has been expressed by the phrase 

anila-tarala-kisalaya-nikarena karena lata-nikurambam 
preranam iva karabhoru karoti gatirh prati munca vilambam 

mugdhef... (4) 


"O you whose lovely thighs resemble the trunk of an elephant! The vines move 
about restlessly in the breeze as if inciting you to go by gesturing with their 
freshly sprouted leaves. So don't delay now." 



The sakhl says, a O you whose excellent thighs taper like the trunk of an 
elephant! As the creepers flutter in the wind, they are beckoning you to go to 
Sri Hari with the hands of their leaves. Go at once. All nature is anxious to take 
you to him. Now do not be late. 

"The cool breeze moves so gently and the trembling signals of the new leaves 
are encouraging you to go. The insentient objects of nature are instructing you 
as if they were sentient. Therefore the fulfilment of your cherished desire is 
bound to take place. Your most beloved Krsna is deeply attached to you and he 
is waiting for you on a play-bed in a chamber of vanjula creepers. Go swiftly. 
Make haste. When you walk, the attractive profile of your buttocks slopes like 
the back of a cupped hand." 

O^erse 6 

sphuritam ananga-taranga-vasdd iva sucita-hari-parirambham 
prccha manohara-hdra-vimala-jala- dhdram amum kuca-kumbham 

mugdhef... (5) 

"Ask these quivering waterpot-like breasts of yours and see. Helplessly trembling 
under the control of waves of amorous desire, and beautified by immaculate 
streams in the form of an enchanting necklace, your breasts inform you of 
Sri Hari's imminent embrace." 


The sakhl says, "Radha, what are you thinking about? Now what more evidence 
do you need? If you do not believe me, then ask your own breasts, which are 
just like waterpots bearing the stream of your enchanting necklace. Indeed, 
what is the cause of their quivering? They are trembling under the control of the 
waves of Kamadeva to indicate the imminent embrace of your lover. Sri Hari 
will be carried along by the powerful current of rasa from your breasts, only to 


Jkct GLleven 

be immersed in the ocean of prema. They are full of intense hankering for the 
touch of Sri Hari's lotus hands. The immaculate, enchanting necklace upon the 
auspicious pitchers of your breasts is like a stream of pure and sparkling water. 
This stream is full of waves; an indication that you will attain your beloved. 
Erotic desire makes your breasts quiver and thus they have become an omen 
of auspiciousness. Do not think this kama is a curse and delay even more. Go 

Q^erse 7 

adhigatam akhila-sakhibhir idam tava vapur api rati-rana-sajjam 
candi ranita-rasand-rava-dindimam abhisara sarasam alajjam 

mugdhef... (6) 


"O you who are so skilled in the battle of lovemaking! O passionate woman, 
your sakhis know well that your body is beautifully equipped for the purpose of 
a love-battle. So abandon your shyness. With the utmost enthusiasm, go for your 
rendezvous with the captivating sound of your jewelled girdle resounding like 
the beating of a war-drum." 


The sakhl says to Radha, "Now why have you become proud? Your desire has 
already transcended all limitations, so why hesitate? Why be ashamed to go 
and meet with Krsna? We are all your intimate friends. Certainly no one else 
is here but us. Why become angry for no reason? All your sakhis know well 
that your body is ready for a love-battle. It is decorated with ornaments and 
every substance required for engagement in sensual combat. After becoming a 
beautiful female warrior, you are now ready. As various instruments resound at 
the time of marching out to war, the bells attached to your waist-belt will chime 
when you set off for this love-battle. Declare war! Abandon all shame and flow 


along in the current of rasa as you journey with ever-increasing attachment to 
meet Sri Hari. Go, Candi! O passionate woman, face the direction of the meeting 

Candi, or "belligerent woman", is an appropriate address for Radha when she 
is ready to fight. 

Q^erse 8 

smara-sara-subhaga-nakhena karena sakhim avalambya sa-lllam 
cala valaya-kvanitair avabodhaya harim api nija-gati-silam 

mugdhef... (7) 


"The attractive fingernails of your lotus hand are five arrows of Kamadeva, fit 
to be employed in the battle of lovemaking. Use them to take support from 
your sakht and gracefully go. Sri Hari's character is highly acclaimed. Make him 
aware of your arrival by the jingle of your bracelets." 


The sakht says to Radha, "O fortunate one, the nails of your soft, charming 
hands are Kamadeva's five flower arrows. Catch the hand of your sakht with 
these hands and gracefully be on your way, ornamented with many pronounced 
ecstatic emotions such as hava-bhava. Your enchanting nails are as piercing 
as the arrows of passionate desire. They are your weapons in this love-battle. 
Krsna is under the control of Kamadeva and he is waiting just for you. As a 
warrior first informs his adversary that he is on the warpath, you should also 
make Krsna aware of your arrival by the tinkle of your bangles. He is occupied 
in preparing himself. He wants to fulfil the hankering of his heart. Inform him 
that you are ready and determined for a love-battle." 


A.ct (SLleven 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam adharlkrta-haram uddsita-rdmam 
hari-vinihita-manasam adhitisthatu kantha-tattm avirdmam 

mugdhef... (8) 


This song of Sri Jayadeva eclipses the beauty of an elegant necklace. It makes 
the most bewitchingly attractive woman become apathetic. May it perpetually 
grace the throats of those devotees who have completely offered their hearts to 

This song of Sri Jayadeva GosvamI defames necklaces strung from pearls and 
other precious jewels and casts them far away. It deflates the enthusiasm of 
beautiful young women. May it always beautify the throats of the devotees of 
Bhagavan. Vaisnavas such as Parasara, whose hearts are attached to Bhagavan, 
will not wear necklaces of jewels. Instead, they will wear this necklace narrated 
by Jayadeva. 

They will also embrace this song instead of embracing beautiful women. 
Necklaces and beautiful women adorn the bosom of those who are attached 
to the endless chain of birth and death; and even then, not in all conditions; 
only during the period of youthfulness. May this song adorn the throats of the 
devotees of Bhagavan under all circumstances because it is about Sri Hari. 

This twentieth song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Sri Hari-tdlaraji- 
jaladhara-vildsita. The rasa herein is vipralambha-srngara. The hero is uttama 


Q&rf (^Qjita-tjavinda 

QPerse JO 

Mr^^fa Wfd feRrW:^ ftf^ ftPT: II ^o || 

sa m^m draksyati vaksyati smara-kathdm praty-angam dlinganaih 
pritirh yasyati ramsyate sakhi samdgatyeti cintakulah 

sa Warn pasyati vepate pulakayaty dnandati svidyati 

praty-udgacchati murcchati sthira-tamah-punje nikunje priyah 


"Sakhi, your most beloved Krsna is enveloped in the dense darkness of a 
secluded bower, anxiously thinking, 'When Radha comes, she will look upon 
me with affectionate eyes. She will speak words full of rasa, revealing her 
amorous desires. She will be delighted to embrace each of my limbs and enjoy 
union with me.' In this way, he feels as if he is already seeing you directly. His 
body is trembling from absorption in these feelings. His hair stands on end, he 
perspires profusely and he is blooming with unlimited joy. When he thinks that 
you have come, he stands up to meet you and faints in euphoria." 


The sakhi says, "O Radha, Sri Hari behaves strangely as he sits in the dense 
darkness of the forest grove. His peculiar activities are symptomatic of his 
escalating thirst for you. When he anxiously remembers you, his emotions 
overflow into sensual behaviour. He revels in the thought that 'Radha will 
see me. She will serve me the sweet, intoxicating wine of her rasa-laden, 
impassioned words. She will become overjoyed by embracing every one of my 
limbs. Then she will be eager for love-games with me.' 

"In this way, Krsna becomes exuberant as his heart swells with many desires 
and expectations. When he sees you in his meditation, he suddenly trembles 


Jkct GLleven 

and thrills with horripilation. He begins to feel the rasa of union with you in his 
imagination. As your amorous play gradually progresses, he becomes drenched 
in perspiration. He sees you in the dream of his ecstatic mood and stands 
up. Then, when he realizes that he is not actually seeing you, he becomes 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and dipaka alankara. The eight 
sattvika-bhavas are divided as follows: 

(1) Becoming stunned (stambhd) and fading complexion (vaivarnyd) - After his 
anxiety and sensual behaviour, he sees Radha coming from far away in the 
dense darkness and his bodily complexion fades as he becomes stunned. 

(2) Trembling (vepathu) and the standing of hairs (romancd) - When he 
dreams about Radha's method of intensifying kdma-keli through her erotic 
conversation, he shudders and horripilates. 

(3) Tears (asru) and perspiration (svedd) - In his imagination, he feels the 
rapture of Radha embracing every one of his limbs and, in the gradual 
progress of their lovemaking, he becomes saturated with perspiration. 

(4) Faltering of the voice (svara-bhangd) and devastation (pralaya) - He cannot 
call Radha's name when his voice falters in the joy of uniting with her, and 
he is devastated when he realizes that he is bereft of her association. 



O^erse 11 

SSfRT -fltfPwWll* ^TT Mr^Hlftf^fd II \\ II 

aksnor niksipad anjanam sravanayos tdpiccha-gucchdvalim 
murdhni sydma-saroja-ddma kucayoh kasturikd-patrakam 

dhurtdndm abhisdra-satvara-hrddm visvan nikunje sakhi 
dhvdntam nila-nicola-cdru sudrsdm praty-angam dlingati 


"Sakhi, look. The darkness surrounding the secluded grove is the black cosmetic 
eye-liner of beautiful-eyed passionate women who are eager to meet with 
their deceitful lovers. It becomes the clusters of tamdla leaves on their ears, 
the garlands of dark blue lotus flowers on their heads and the pictures painted 
in musk on their pitcher-like breasts. See how the darkness embraces all their 
limbs and covers them even more pleasantly than a dark blue garment." 

The sakhi says, "O Radha, Syama is sitting in a dense arbour where the darkness 
seems to be an amalgamation of all the darkness in the universe. How eager 
and anxious he is to meet you. Now do not delay. No one can understand the 
movements of abhisdrikd heroines in the night because they wear the best deep 
blue garments. The darkness of night is their dear friend because it is also deep 
blue. It embraces them on all sides and arouses their eagerness to make love 
with their deceitful paramours in secluded forest bowers. Darkness itself is their 
black cosmetic eye-liner and it also plays the role of their dark blue peacock 
feather and tamdla leaf ear-ornaments. Darkness is the garland of blue lotus 
flowers on their hearts and the pictures painted in liquid musk on their breasts. 
"The deep blue darkness is also embracing every one of your limbs and 


Jkct GLleven 

offering these ornaments and decorations to you. Therefore, suitably attired for 
your tryst, set off into the dense darkness and do not be late. In every bower, 
the whole environment is favourable for the secret rendezvous of shrewd lovers 
who are expert in relishing rasa. This night is like a blue garment covering 
every limb in its endless expansion. 

"Go! Be on your way! You should arrive there before another rival heroine 
does. At this time, there is no need for you to put eye-liner on your eyes, 
earrings on your ears, garlands on your neck, musk paintings on your breasts or 
anything else. Just go at once." 

Q^erse 12 

ddk^HfH*N)Mtfdi rFfrfrT II V( II 

kdsmlra-gaura-vapusdm abhisdrikdndm 
dbaddha-rekham abhito ruci-manjaribhih 

etat tamdla-dala-nlla-tamam tamisram 
tat-prema-hema-nikasopalatdm tanoti 


"The shimmering lustre of trysting heroines with fair saffron-complexioned 
bodies is the gold of love. That gold marks the testing stone of impenetrable 
darkness, which expands everywhere like the darkest leaves of the tamdla tree." 


The sakhi says, "My dear friend, for trysting heroines whose bodies are as 
lustrous as saffron, this darkness, deep blue as a tamdla leaf, is the testing stone 
for the gold of love. The darkness is marked everywhere with the lines of their 
shimmering golden lustre. 


"The darkness is a testing stone who presents himself to examine the gold 
of these young women's love. The quality of gold is tested on such a stone. The 
gold leaves a mark on the stone but the colour of the stone does not show up on 
the gold. However, when you enter this dense darkness, golden-limbed Radha, 
the testing stone will make a dark blue mark upon the strip of gold. Now go to 
the meeting place as quickly as possible." 

This verse features upamd alankdra and vasanta-tilakd chanda 

Jkct GLleven 
Scene Twenty-one 

Q^erse 13 

plI^lcldlH^r wtP^TrW^ II ^ II 



dvdre nikunja-nilayasya harim vilokya 
vrtddvatim atha sakhim iyam ity uvdca 


The forest bower became illuminated by the lustre of her golden waist-belt, 
earrings, the gems set in her bracelets and the jewel situated splendidly in the 
middle of her necklace. As Radha stood in the doorway of the love chamber, 
she saw Sri Hari and became shy. Then a friend began to speak to her. 


After being encouraged by her sakhi, Radha arrives at the forest pavilion. She 
is somewhat shy, but when she sees Sri Hari is already there, she becomes 
even more bashful. The doorway of the nikunja is lit up by the radiance of her 
ornaments, her pearl necklace, gold waist-belt, topaz and jewelled earrings. 
She can see Krsna waiting for her by the light of these ornaments and as soon 
as she sees him, she is overwhelmed with embarrassment. It is appropriate 
for passionate young women to employ shyness as a means of creating an 
abundance of kdma on the occasion of their first union. Now the sakhi is 
obliging Radha to step forward from the doorway into the love chamber. 
The chanda of this verse is vasanta-tilakd. 









^"-' A>."--a 

The musical mode is varadi raga. The rhythm is rupaka tala. 

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Jkct GLleven 

vilasa rati-rabhasa-hasita-vadane 

pravisa radhe! madhava-samipam iha (refrain) (1) 


"O Radha, your face is blooming with excessive rasa due to your eagerness 
for lovemaking. Enter the pastime chamber of this enchanting bower. Go to 
Madhava and enjoy with him." 


The sakhi tells Radha, "Your face expresses delight due to enthusiasm for love- 
play. Now you are smiling and jubilant in the agitation of prema. A pastime 
chamber has been made in the middle of this charming thicket. Please go 
inside. Kindly approach Madhava and make love with him." 

O^erse IS 

vilasa kuca-kalasa-tarala-hare 

pravisa radhe!... (2) 

"Your necklace trembles upon quivering pitcher-like breasts, indicating an 
imminent sensual encounter with your beloved. Enter and take your place 
upon the bed of newly sprouted asoka leaves. Approach Madhava and enjoy 
with him." 



"The restless necklace of pearls upon your bosom hints that you are also restless 
for union. This bed of fresh asoka leaves has been made especially for you. Go! 
Revel in the pleasure of union upon this elegantly decorated bed." 

Q^erse 16 

vilasa kusuma-sukumdra-dehe 

pravisa rddhe!... (3) 

"Your tender young body is even more captivating than a flower. Enter the pure 
pastime chamber, which is adorned with many flowers. Approach Madhava and 
revel in pleasure with him." 


"Your body is even softer than flower blossoms and this entire pastime pavilion 
is made from collected flowers that sparkle brilliantly. Therefore enter this pure 
chamber of flowers and experience rapture with Sri Krsna. Go! Enter without 
fear because these are your own quarters." 

Q^erse 17 

vilasa rati-valita-lalita-gtte 
vilasa madana-sara-nikara-bhtte) 

pravisa rddhe!... (4) 


Jkct GLleven 


"O Radha, you are afraid of the arrows of Cupid, and you are singing a wanton 
song about the rasa of lovemaking. Enter the pastime pavilion of flowering 
vines, which is cool and fragrant with the gentle and restless movements of the 
Malaya breeze. Approach Madhava and delight in amorous pleasure with him." 


The sakhl encourages Radha, "You are intimidated by the arrows of Kamadeva, 
so take shelter in this love chamber that is attended by the south wind from 
Malaya Mountain. The soft touch of the breeze makes the grove of blossoming 
creepers even more refreshing and aromatic. Go into this temple of prema and 
enjoy pastimes with Krsna. The moment has come to express your inner ecstasy 
with the voice of your prana. Sing! Sing out the madly passionate song of love." 

C&erse 18 

vilasa ciram alasa-ptna-jaghane 

pravisa radhe!... (5) 

"Your movements are slowed down by the heavy burden of your buxom hips. 
Enter into this secluded pastime-bower, which is densely covered with the new 
leaves of its flourishing vines. Approach Madhava and relish pastimes with him." 

"Your hips move slowly because they are so broad. And this nikunja has also 
expanded into a mass of flourishing vines. Its density has increased with the 
addition of newly sprouted leaves. Therefore, go inside and revel in pleasure 
with your most beloved Sri Krsna for a long time because no one will be able to 
see you." 


Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavinda 

vilasa madana-rasa-sarasa-bhdve 

pravisa rddhe!... (6) 


"You feel an ever-increasing thirst for the erotic mellow. Enter this flower 
chamber. It resounds with the humming of bumblebees maddened from 
drinking honey. Approach Madhava and enjoy pastimes with him." 


"You have been surcharged with sensuality by Kamadeva. Intoxicated 
bumblebees attain the greatest happiness during the spring season. They hum 
in bliss as they taste the rasa of the flowers in this grove. You should also enter 
and taste prema-rasa. This is a place of immense joy. It is the auspicious gate to 
intimate loving union. Go inside. Radha, just enter the grove!" 

Q^erse 20 

vilasa dasana-ruci-rucira-sikhare 

pravisa rddhe!... (7) 


"O Radha, your teeth are like rubies or fully ripened pomegranate seeds. Enter 
this pavilion of flowering vines. It resounds with the sweet cooing of a flock of 
cuckoos. Go close to Madhava and enjoy with him." 

The sakht urges, "O Radha, your teeth sparkle with the lustre of ruby-like jewels 
(sikhara). This nikunja already resounds with the sweet low tone of warbling 


Jkct GLleven 

cuckoos. Accompany them as you revel to your heart's content with Sri Krsna. 
No one will hear you." 

kuru murdre mangala-satdni 
bhanati jayadeva-kavirdja-rdje 

pravisa rddhe!... (8) 


The emperor of all poets, Sri Jayadeva, has composed this song to gladden 
Radha's heart in a variety of ways. O enemy of Mura, may you confer unlimited 
auspiciousness upon the entire world. 


Offering his poem at the lotus feet of Krsna, Sri Jayadeva says, "O Murari, on 
hearing this song by the emperor of poets, may you bestow auspiciousness 
upon everyone in thousands of ways." 

Apart from being the name of Sri Jayadeva's wife, PadmavatI is also a name 
for the original goddess of fortune, Sri Radha. Jayadeva is the best amongst 
the kings of poetry and he is a worshipper of PadmavatI. He humbly prays 
to Sri Hari, "O Murari, I have established PadmavatI within the inner palace. 
Therefore this poetry is for your happiness. May you be delighted and confer 
auspiciousness upon us hundreds of times over." 

Alternatively, Sri Jayadeva personally appeals to Radha, "O PadmavatI, he 
who is the complete wealth of LaksmI is joyfully present today within the 
pastime grove. May you confer hundreds of types of auspiciousness upon that 
Murari. His only auspiciousness lies in making love with you." 



Q^erse 22 

r^T kl^H fat cl^ilHfd^Prfi' *J?T dlftld: 

3T^n^ d<w$* yuifa* ^q^ft^r- 

Warn cittena ciram vahann ayam ati-srdnto bhrsarh tdpitah 
kandarpena capdtum icchati sudhd-sambddha-bimbddharam 

asydnkam tad alankuru ksanam iha bhru-ksepa-laksmt-lava- 
krite ddsa ivopasevita-paddmbhoje kutah sambhramah 


"O ravishing beauty, Sri Krsna is present before you. He is exhausted from 
holding you in the core of his heart for a long time while burning in the heat of 
amorous desire. He ardently longs to drink the sweet nectar of your bimba-huit 
lips. Go and adorn the chest of your eager lover. He is ever grateful to receive 
the vast opulence of your sidelong glance, even for a fraction of a second. 
Like a purchased slave, he has become the servant of your lotus feet merely 
for the price of your sidelong glance. So why are you hesitating? Why are you 


The sakhi tells Radha, "Sri Hari is depleted from holding you in his heart for 
such a long time. He is scorched from deep within. Kamadeva has tormented 
him severely. He aspires to drink the sweetness of your red bimba-fruit lips, 
which are full of nectarean rasa. Therefore, my dear one, become the lustre of 
your hankering lover's limbs! You have purchased him simply by casting your 
glance upon him for just a second. Now completely decorate the body of your 
foot-servant, Sri Krsna. Without inhibition, adorn his chest at once. Why are you 
shy? Why deliberate any further? Why hesitate? " 

This verse features rupaka and utpreksd alankdras. The chanda is sdrdula- 


Jkct GLleven 

O^erse 23 

s<2 sa-sddhvasa-sdnandam 

govinde lola-locand 

pravivesa nivesanam 


Sri Radha's heart was full of ambition as she glanced at Govinda with her 
restless eyes. Her jewelled ankle-bells tinkled alluringly as she began to enter 
the chamber of the secluded forest bower. 


Radha was feeling nervous and elated at the same time. She looked around 
and glanced towards the hopeful Krsna. Her ankle-bells tinkled as she entered 
the forest bower on the advice of her friend. The bower was a perfect place for 
amorous love-games. When she glanced at Krsna, she felt as if he were holding 
her in his every limb. 





Scene Twenty-two 

Qfbong 22 

The musical mode is varadl rdga. The rhythm is yati tola. 

There is a woman with attractive hair. She wears bangles on her 
wrists and bunches of flowers upon her ears. When she shyly 
takes up a yak-tail whisk and fans her beloved as she delights 
in amusement with him, her song is called varadl rdga. 

7raicKdfatfWdf^fad(d(d^fa*Nfa'»1f*T | 

W ^t 'J**<Je($ic|<*cK'iHH#faebl'HH II ^T II ?tf II 
^dd^Hd^McMfadfacJ ilHHMoWH ll?f?o II ^ II 

dloHfcHfad MldM^HIMdcVM'Jcltffid^H W&o II ^ II 

d^lM^^oHMd^cKd^fdd-jfrWHIH I 
^dcbM^U^fody^H^'lfMcl -5Rf^ rTSFFT U^fto II ^V9 II 

c|<HcbHtf Mf^Htf dfaftfdfan^H^u^tfSll'W I 
fwd^^HU^fadl^M&cl^d^fdtfl"^ ll?f?o II ^<S II 

Slfel(*«U|^Rdk^tf >M<^«<4$^H<^IH I 
fdfH<)fedfd^HU^fd4tfHtf^fdtf*fd<^mi?f?o ||^ll 

fdMtfMtftfr'M^'dfed <fd<^ftf*rt|fa?sfftTT I 

fasRTKTT H?fTo || 33 || 



is-ffv^l^- - 

Jkct GLleven 

jala-nidhim iva vidhu-mandala-darsana-taralita-tunga-tarangam 

harim eka-rasam ciram abhilasita-vildsam 
sd dadarsa guru-harsa-vasamvada-vadanam ananga-vikdsam 

(refrain) (1) 


Radha is the exclusive object of Krsna's ever-increasing attachment. He has 
cherished the desire to enjoy amorous pastimes with her for a long time. 
He blooms with jubilation on beholding her face and he thrills with various 
ecstatic transformations of passionate love. Radha saw how Krsna, the ocean 
of erotic mellows, was manifesting amatory attachment through his suggestive 
expressions and posture, just as the ocean becomes turbulent with high waves 
upon seeing the orb of the full moon. 


In the flower pavilion, Radha beheld Krsna with excessive affection. She saw 
his unique and manifold virtues. All of Krsna's specialities are related to Radha. 
Sri Hari is referred to as eka-rasa. The purport is that one rasa, the amorous 
mellow (srngdra), has made itself prominent and that Krsna is brimming with 
many aspects of that one rasa. 

Ever-fresh attachment for Radha is surging within him because he has 
cherished the desire to enjoy intimate pastimes with her for such a long time. 
Radha's presence in the pastime bower is the all in all of his life. Krsna was 
overwhelmed with happiness simply by seeing her. He broke out into many 
sdttvika transformations such as trembling and horripilation. 

On seeing Radha's face, which appeared to be the abode of Kamadeva, 
Krsna's face lit up with jubilation. He wanted to fulfil his desire for union. 
Radha's face is the full moon, upon seeing which the Krsna-ocean becomes 
turbulent and heaves with towering waves. Radha noticed that as soon as Krsna 
saw her, he began to manifest many kinds of amatory emotions. 


O^erse 25 

hdram amalatara-tdram urasi dadhatam parilambya viduram 
sphutatara-phena-kadamba-karambitam iva yamund-jala-puram 

harim eka-rasam... (2) 


Sri Hari has adorned his perfectly smooth chest with a necklace of bright pearls 
that repeatedly embrace his heart. It seems as if the water of the River Yamuna 
is carrying clusters of conspicuous foam. 


In this verse Krsna is compared to the broad current of the River Yamuna. 
An auspicious necklace of pearls that hangs down to his knees repeatedly 
embraces his dark blue chest. It gives the impression that the dark blue water of 
the Yamuna has mixed with white foam and is directly manifesting there. It is 
also implied that the sdttvika-bhdva of profuse perspiration is clearly visible on 
Krsna's body. 

Q^erse 26 

sydmala-mrdula-kalevara-mandalam adhigata-gaura-dukulam 
nila-nalinam iva pita-pardga-patala-bhara-valayita-mulam 

harim eka-rasam... (3) 

Sri Hari has put a yellow garment on his soft and lustrous dark body. It seems as 
if a blue lotus flower has become drenched by its anther of golden pollen. 


Sri Hari has draped a yellow shawl over his dark blue transcendental body. 
Thus his body resembles a blue lotus flower, ornately covered by its own 


Jkct GLleven 

yellow pollen. This also indicates that Radha's golden limbs will be even more 
beautiful upon Krsna's dark blue chest. In this way, Krsna's yellow shawl heralds 
the awaited viparita-rati. 

O^erse 27 

sphuta-kamalodara-khelita-khanjana-yugam iva saradi taddgam 

harim eka-rasam... (4) 


Krsna's enchanting face is as beautiful as a fully blossomed blue lotus flower in 
the pure water of a lake during autumn. The expressive sidelong glances of his 
restless eyes, which appear to be the sporting of a wagtail bird upon a lotus, are 
inflaming Radha's obsession for sensuality. 


When Radha entered the chamber, Krsna's eyes became restless. When she saw 
his charming face with its mild smile, the desire to engage in amorous pastimes 
awakened in her heart. Krsna's smiling face resembled a fully blossomed 
autumnal lotus flower upon which sported the two wagtail birds of his restless 
eyes. On beholding Radha, Krsna became motionless. Therefore he has been 
compared to an autumnal lake. 

In this verse the restlessness of his eyes reveals his thirst for lovemaking. The 
casting of his sidelong glance arouses Radha's passion. The word kamalodara 
also alludes to a specific coital position called padmdsana. His enchanting face 
awakens the desire for such union in young women. 


Ctferse 28 


harim eka-rasam... (5) 


Red as the morning sun, the beauty of Krsna's jewelled ear ornaments is rising 
to touch the beauty of his lotus face. Shining with the lustre of his radiant smile, 
his quivering flower-bud lips are arousing Radha's greed for amorous pastimes. 


The ornaments decorating Krsna's ears seem to be two rising suns meeting on 
his cheeks to attain the touch of his blooming lotus face. Sunlight is a reminder 
that the time for loving pastimes must come to an end. Krsna's gentle smile 
enhances the radiance of his face. His flower-bud lips, eager to kiss the lips of 
Radha, express his thirst for union. As Radha beholds Krsna's lotus face, which 
is the ornament of the essence of beauty, the desire for amorous love also rises 
in her heart. 

QPerse 29 


harim eka-rasam... (6) 

Decorated with flowers and illuminated by the rays of the moon, Krsna's locks 
of hair seem to be a row of fresh rainclouds. The splendour of the sandalwood 
paste tilaka on his forehead gives the impression that the full moon has risen 
amidst the darkness of the unblemished sky. 


Jkct GLleven 


Krsna's beautiful curling locks are adorned with radiant, fully blossomed 
flowers. Their splendour gives the impression that the moon is hidden amongstst 
a mass of dark clouds. Alternatively, the rays of the moon are pervading his 
dark tresses. Another interpretation suggests that the moon is rising in the midst 
of the clouds. Clusters of flowers are clearly visible where the moon shines in 
between small clouds. And wherever the moonshine is not visible, the clouds 
turn into lampblack. 

The tilaka of Malaya sandalwood paste on Krsna's dark forehead looks like 
the full moon risen in the midst of the dark sky. The presence of Radha makes 
Krsna's clothing and ornaments become golden. Now Radha is looking at that 
golden Syamasundara. 

Q^erse 30 

vipula-pulaka-bhara-danturitam rati-keli-kalabhir adhtram 

harim eka-rasam... (7) 


Radha's glance makes Krsna's body thrill with severe horripilation. His mind is 
unsteady as many subjects concerning sensual love awaken therein. Illuminated 
by the rays of his jewels, his splendid form has assumed an exceedingly 
captivating aura. 


Radha notices that all the hairs on Krsna's body are standing on end. She is 
astonished to see the wonderful way his skin-pores become erect with pleasure. 
He is extraordinarily agitated by the expectation of engaging in love-games. 
On meeting Radha, Krsna's excitement mounts, along with his absorption in 
thoughts of kissing and other activities suitable in a performance of the erotic 
arts. Radha is beholding the aura of Krsna's wonderful body, enhanced by the 
lustre of his sparkling jewellery. 


pranamata hrdi vinidhdya harim suciram sukrtodaya-sdram 

harim eka-rasam... (8) 


The splendour of the multitude of Krsna's ornaments has been doubled by 
the variety of ornamental expressions composed by Sri Jayadeva. O tasteful 
devotees! Krsna is the fruit of all your pious activities. With great care, may you 
hold him within your heart and offer obeisances to him. 


To conclude, Sri Jayadeva says, "O you who are engaged in devotional service, 
the poetry of the crest-jewel of bards, Sri Jayadeva, has doubled the beauty of 
Krsna's ornaments." 

Alternatively, "This narration of Krsna's influence is adorned with double 
alankdms, or ambiguous literary embellishments. Krsna's appearance is the 
embodiment of all your pious activities accumulated over a vast period of time. 
Hold him within your heart and offer obeisances to him." 

Such a captivating appearance of Krsna arises within one's heart as a result 
of immense piety. When Krsna unites with Radha, his attributes are doubled by 
the doubled quantity of ornaments and also by the influence of their meeting. 

"May that very Krsna, upon whom Sri Radha stares incessantly, be graciously 
present within your heart for eternal time." 

This twenty-second song of Sri Gita-govinda is entitled Sdnanda-govinda- 
rdga sreni-kusumdbharana. 



Jkct GLleven 

O^erse 32 

34fd*wJNl4 3^PJFPMM4-d'IHH- 
M^l^c||§JJ|lw<tfd<dU Mfdd^ll: I 

tRTrT ^^I^Mcb< ^ F^felf^FT: II ?9 II 

atikramydpdngam sravana-patha-paryanta-gamana- 
praydsenevdksnos taralatara-tdram patitayoh 

taddnim rddhdydh priyatama-samdloka-samaye 
papdta sveddmbu-prakara iva harsdsru-nikarah 


Within moments of meeting her beloved, Radha's unsatiated eyes tried to pass 
beyond their corners and reach around to her ears. Her inner jubilation became 
restless and overflowed in the form of tears of joy, as if it were perspiration 
arising from the exertion of her eyes. 


After feeling the pain of separation for such a long time, when Radha finally met 
with Krsna, her jubilation could not remain still, so it began to overflow from 
her eyes. Her extraordinarily large eyes seemed to be dripping with perspiration 
from relishing the taste of love-play 

Alternatively, her eyes tried to surpass the position of a sidelong glance and 
arrive at her ears. It was as if the perspiration, arising from the hard endeavour 
of her eyes, had begun to flow like a stream of water in the form of tears of joy. 
Radha's eyes were also excessively restless due to her intense hankering to see 

This verse, which reveals Radha's sdttvika-bhdva, features upamd alankdra 
and sikharini chanda. 


O^erse 33 

^^IW^M ^dcbMdchU^rM^d- 

^SJT rt^lPM oMMHftcl ^T ifT^T: II ?3 II 

bhajantyds talpdntam krta-kapata-kanduti-pihita- 
smitam ydte gehdd bahir avahitdli-parijane 

priydsyam pasyantydh smara-sara-samdhuta-subhagam 
salajjd lajjdpi vyagamad iva duram mrga-drsah 


Radha's attendants were eager to make her happy. As soon as they saw the doe- 
eyed Radha sitting on Kesava's bed, they tactfully concealed their smiles on the 
pretext of scratching themselves and made their exit from the inner chamber 
of the bower. Helplessly impelled by sensual attraction, Radha cast a charming 
sidelong glance at the face of her most beloved Krsna. At that time, her shyness 
also departed in shame and went far away. 


The moment Radha sat down on the bed, her considerate sakhis understood 
that it would not be proper for them to stay there any longer. Their presence 
would impede Sri Radha-Madhava's sweet meeting. Smiling and making various 
excuses to turn away, such as scratching their ears, those cunning sakhis made 
their exit from the chamber of flowers. 

When Radha sat elegantly upon the bed, she became totally under the 
control of Kamadeva's arrows. She began to look at Krsna as if to pierce him 
with those same arrows. Seeing Radha's boldness (pragalbhatd), even the 
goddess of shame personified became embarrassed. As the sakhis had done 
previously, she abandoned the doe-eyed Radha and went far away. Now, how 


Jkct GLleven 

will inhibition remain in this amorous affair? With an incessant, unblinking 
gaze, Radha took complete possession of Sri Krsna. 

This verse features rasavad alankdra and sikharini chanda. 

W^i H^<fcjft*kJ fadM< W*ti H^H^ 

Trammer ^wIKuuh^ tz "^#(#mi 

H^ rT^TT ^l^lcMHcUddlPHldl *TT ^ ^t 

^ f^#RT dWIsfeRfd clfodlfleWltfl*^!: II 3* II 

sdnandarh nanda-sunur disatu mita-param sammadam manda-mandam 
rddhdm ddhdya bdhvor vivaram anu drdharh pidayan priti-yogdt 

tungau tasyd urojdv atanu-vara-tanor nirgatau ma sma bhutdrh 
prstharh nirbhidya tasmdd bahir iti valita-grivam dlokayan vah 


The son of Nanda, Sri Krsna, slowly and gently took Radha in his arms, then he 
tightly embraced her with affection. By embracing Radha, he felt as if her highly 
protruding breasts might pierce through his back and come out the other side. 
May that Sri Krsna confer bliss upon all. 


Sri Govinda, the son of Nanda, and Radha have met together alone. Fully 
enraptured by this meeting, Krsna slowly and gently put his arms around Radha 
to embrace her. Radha is more delicate than an acacia flower, therefore Krsna 
held her softly in his arms. 

The phrase drdharh pidayan reveals Krsna's ever-increasing thirst for her 
love. Impelled by affection, Krsna then embraced her tightly. This time Krsna 
felt as if Radha's erect nipples were about to pierce through his back and come 
out the other side. In this context, the hard and penetrating nature of her nipples 


is being revealed, indicating the extreme sensual appeal and fresh feminine 
youthfulness of her natural beauty. Otherwise she is softer than a flower. 

This verse features srngdra-rasa, vaidarbhi riti, prasdda guna and sragdhard 

Q^erse 3S 

Mcb1u|J^[M^^[d *J*)<*u^l H<fad: II ?K II 

jayasri-vinyastair mahita iva manddra-kusumaih 
svayam sindurena dvipa-rana-mudd mudrita iva 

praktrndsrg-bindur jayati bhuja-dando murajitah 


In the wrestling match, Krsna's arms are beautified by drops of blood after 
killing the elephant Kuvalayaplda. From his exuberance in fighting with the 
elephant, it seems as if his arms are smeared with vermilion and decorated with 
manddra flowers by the goddess of victory. May those broad arms of Krsna, the 
conqueror of Mura, be ever-triumphant. 


Sri Jayadeva says, "May Sri Krsna's arms confer auspiciousness upon you all. His 
excellent arms are praiseworthy throughout the entire universe. He is known 
as Murajita because his arms, like rods of chastisement, brought an end to the 
Mura demon. His formidable arms also sportively dispatched Karhsa's elephant, 
Kuvalayaplda. When drops of the elephant's blood spattered onto his arms, 
it seemed as if the goddess of victory was personally worshipping him with 


Jkct GLleven 

pdrijdta flowers. Krsna's delight in killing the elephant assumed the form of 

It is said that Krsna remembered Radha when he saw the elephant's 
protruding cranial globes. Therefore, although his arms were beautified by 
drops of blood, they seemed to be decorated with the vermilion of bliss or by 
manddra flowers offered by Vijaya-LaksmI, the goddess of victory. 

"May those strong arms bestow auspiciousness upon you all. O Sri Krsna's 
arms! All glory to you! All victory to you!" 

This verse features sikharini chanda, anuprdsa and utpreksd alankdras, 
pdncdli rtti, drabhati vrtti and vim-rasa. 

O^erse 36 

^lldHiH^^M^rH^ ^|-H*^1 TT^TT II ^ II 

saundaryaika-nidher ananga-laland-ldvanya-lild-juso 
rddhdyd hrdipalvale manasija-krtdaika-ranga-sthale 

ramyoroja-saroja-khelana-rasitvdd dtmanah khydpayan 

dhydtur mdnasa-rdja-hamsa-nibhatdm deydn mukundo mudam 


The ocean of beauty, Sri Radha, is as lustrous as Rati-devI, the consort of Cupid. 
Mukunda is single-mindedly absorbed in play with her lotus breasts upon the 
enchanting stage of the lake of her heart, just as the regal swans of Lake Manasa 
play among the lotus flowers. Sri Mukunda praises those who meditate upon 
him in this way. May he bestow happiness upon all. 



Mukunda refers to he who releases everyone from distress and bestows bliss. 
In this verse the crest-jewel of poets, Sri Jayadeva, gives a benediction to his 
readers and audience by saying that Radha is the only ocean of all beauty and 
her bosom is the playground of Krsna. 

The poet has compared Radha's chest to a lake. As lotus flowers grow upon 
a lake, the two enchanting lotus flowers of Radha's breasts are growing upon 
the lake of her chest. The playful Krsna is compared to the king of swans who 
takes pleasure there. 

That Krsna-swan also sports on Manasa-sarovara, the lake of the hearts of 
those who meditate upon him. May he thus confer auspiciousness upon all his 

This verse features rupaka and asih alankdras. The chanda is sdrdula- 

Thus ends the Balabodhinl-prakasa commentary on 
Act Eleven of Sri GIta-govinda, £n/7/fe<iSananda-govinda. 


II 5T^T: Wi: I 


A,ct twelve 

— suprlta-pTtambarah — 

gladsome in ^old 

QPerse J 

gatavati sakhi-vrnde 'manda-trapd-bhara-nirbhara- 

sarasa-manasam drstvd rddhdrh muhur nava-pallava- 
prasara-sayane niksiptdkstm uvdca harih priydm 


hen the female attendants made their exit from the chamber of 
flowering vines, Sri Radha, who is extremely bashful, became 
| possessed by Kamadeva, the god of amorous love. The beauty of 
her lips was enhanced by the appearance of a smile and she glanced repeatedly 
at the bed made from fresh leaves and flowers with an ever-increasing passion 
for love-play Seeing his beloved glancing in this way, Krsna began to speak. 


When Radha approached the bed for love-games in the chamber of the grove, 
her sakhls considered themselves to be obstacles and made various excuses 
to leave. Krsna saw that Radha had become excruciatingly shy at heart. By the 
influence of kdma, a gentle smile was playing on her lips and she was looking 
in the direction of the bed of new leaves. She was unable to say anything. 
Her mind was full of unquenchable desire and the fresh flower bed was the 
embodiment of her exclusive intention. Seeing Radha's disposition, Krsna spoke 
to her with ever-increasing affection. 





Scene Twenty-three 

m v 

Q&mtf 23 

The musical mode is vibhdsa raga. The rhythm is ekatdll tdla. 
fe>«c644WHd<& ^^ enfold «NUMfc4Hfc|PkUm I 

<*><*M<}h ^THH xKum^HHlfadlfa ^Hl 

cKH^MlfdfeHlftfdM^dfHcl TxRT eM-WH/fccW M 
fd^fHclim^lfH tra^RfhJ^TfH %<&ft\ II *m° || * || 

H^fa ^ehoi^i faPfcUw WW* mftMdNH liarnTo II Ml 
STSR^m^R^ *nfafr ^ficRf ^dfacl ^TM I 

facb-frdfacbA WW fcKKeWKU || STJTo II \9 II 

Hmfdfa«+>tf *MI fa^tflfjdMclortnbrJHiilH^M I 
Hlftfdtff^dfacl ^FT rlcT fcRW fcR^T <fd^^H II mio II <S II 

^n^^^eJ^ruidfM^HHM^fHM^dHiyR^MkH I 

*H<Ud <fa«*w1H^ m < l<H<fd<*4'Hlc|fcH)<H II STnTo II <? II 


~ ?. ':-s.W. *^s ; "-.-3 


A>ct twelve 

kisalaya-sayana-tale kuru kdmini carana-nalina-vinivesam 
tava pada-pallava-vairi-pardbhavam idam anubhavatu suvesam 

ksanam adhund ndrdyanam anugatam anusara rddhike! 

(refrain) (1) 


"O passionate woman, place your flower-like feet upon this bed of newly 
sprouted leaves. This bed is the enemy of the soft leaves of your feet. Let it now 
feel the humiliation of defeat. O Radhika, for a moment, may you follow me, 
your subservient Narayana." 


Sri Hari said to Radha, "O amorous woman, put your lotus feet upon this bed 
of soft leaves. These leaves are inimical to your petal-like feet. Attack them 
with your feet so that they may realize their defeat. When an enemy conquers 
his adversary, he crushes him with his feet. O my beloved, I am delighted by 
the festival of seeing you. Just for a moment, now allow me to be delighted by 
the festival of union with you. Now the moment has come to follow me. Enjoy 
loving pastimes with your subservient Narayana." 

As Narayana is the creator, Krsna said, "I am Narayana", to introduce the 
creation of rasa. In this context, Narayana means, "He who resides (ay and) in 
the water (ndrd) and who is the shelter (ayand) of all living entities (ndrd)" 

Krsna implies, "A distressed person becomes joyful by sporting in the water 
of the ocean. Similarly, you are also suffering from the burning sensation of lust. 
So just experience love-play, as if sporting in the ocean of my prema. In this 
way, make yourself happy and also refresh me." 

The word anugata (subordinate) implies, 'Although I am the beloved of 
many, my heart is exclusively yours." 

The phrase "place your feet" (upon the bed), reveals that Krsna has a specific 
activity in mind. 


O^erse 3 

kara-kamalena karomi caranam aham dgamitdsi viduram 
ksanam upakuru sayanopari mam iva nupuram anugati-suram 

ksanam adhuna... (2) 

"My dear one, you have come here from far away I will massage your lotus feet 
with my lotus hands. Just for a moment, upon this bed, show favour to a hero 
like me, the follower of your ankle-bells." 


Sri Krsna says, "O Radha, you have come here after walking from very far away. 
Come, let me massage your lotus feet with my hands. I worship these feet. I am 
just like your ankle-bells. As they are always ready to follow you wherever you 
go, so am I. Therefore I am also eligible to receive your favour and become the 
beneficiary of your kindness. You favour your ankle-bells by wearing them, so 
show the same favour to me - upon this bed." 

Q^erse % 

vadana-sudhd-nidhi-galitam amrtam iva racaya vacanam anukulam 
viraham ivdpanaydmi payodhara-rodhakam urasi dukulam 

ksanam adhuna... (3) 


"O Radha, please speak some pleasant words that trickle like nectar from the 
moon of your face. I desire to remove separation personified in the form of the 
garment that covers your breasts and obstructs our togetherness." 


"O Radha, kindly utter pleasant and alluring words that excite passion. Your face 
resembles the moon. As nectar emanates from the moon, rain streams of nectar 


A>ct twelve 

upon me from your moonlike face by sweetly conversing about our sexual 
games. I have been suffering in separation from you." 

According to the principle of correlation between the subject and object of a 
simile, it is equally valid to say, "I remove the separation that is like a fine cloth," 
or, "I remove the fine cloth that is like separation." 

"As separation obstructs our union, the fine cloth upon your breasts also 
impedes our meeting. Therefore allow me to remove this barrier. This fine 
cloth encloses your breasts. The breasts of passionate women do not flourish 
at the time of separation. Similarly, breasts do not flourish when covered by a 
garment, so I will remove the covering of separation that checks the radiance of 
your bosom." 

Q^erse S 

priya-parirambhana-rabhasa-valitam iva pulakitam ati-duravdpam 
mad-urasi kuca-kalasam vinivesaya sosaya manasija-tdpam 

ksanam adhund... (4) 


"My dearest, your rarely accessible pitcher-like breasts thrill with horripilation. 
They are ready to be embraced by your most beloved. Please place them upon 
my chest and vanquish the heat of my unfulfilled amorous desires." 


"O Radha, hold your round waterpot-like breasts on my chest as if you are 
placing pitchers upon a sacrificial altar (rnangala-vedi) and remove the heat of 
my passion. Heat is vanquished by the proximity of a waterpot. Every pore of 
the skin on your waterpot-like breasts is thrilling with horripilation. Your breasts 
are extremely difficult to attain without your favour. Now they are ready and 
intent on the embrace of your sweetheart. Therefore, place them on my heart 
and drive away the burning of my kdma" 


adhara-sudhd-rasam upanaya bhdmini jivaya mrtam iva ddsam 
tvayi vinihita-manasam virahdnala-dagdha-vapusam avildsam 

ksanam adhund... (5) 


"O haughty woman, my mind is absorbed in you. I am burning in the fire of 
separation. I am bereft of all pleasure. Your servant is as if dead. Save my life by 
making me drink the nectarean juice of your lips." 


"My dear indignant one, this servant is nothing but the personal attendant of 
your feet. Be merciful to him. Abandon your contrary mood. Be done with your 
anger. I am burning in the fire of separation as I constantly remember you. This 
servant is like a person about to die. Infuse new life into me with the nectar of 
your lips. Make this inactive person active once again. A dead person springs 
back to life upon drinking nectar. Though bereft of all happiness, my heart is 
attached exclusively to you. I am being scorched by the fire of separation, so 
kindly sprinkle me with the nectar of your lips." 

sasimukhi mukharaya mani-rasand-gunam anuguna-kantha-ninddam 
sruti-puta-yugale pika-ruta-vikale samaya cirdd avasddam 

ksanam adhund... (6) 

"Your face is as beautiful as the moon. Make the jewels on your girdle chime in 
resonance with the sound of your voice, and thereby pacify my ears, which have 
been frustrated for a long time by the cuckoo's call." 


A>ct twelve 


"O woman with a radiant moonlike face, you are the moon that drips with 
nectar. Make the jewelled bells on your girdle sing out in harmony and unison 
with the tone of your voice so that when you make love to me in the upper 
position, those bells will begin to mark rhythm along with your inarticulate 
exclamations of ecstasy. My ears were distressed from hearing the cuckoos' 
call because it stimulates my memories of you. For lonely lovers, the sound of 
cuckoos is simply painful. Now fill my ears with music and allay this prolonged 
frustration of separation." 

Q^erse 8 

mam ati-viphala-rusa vikali-krtam avalokitum adhunedam 
mtlita-lajjitam iva nayanam tava virama visrja rati-khedam 

ksanam adhuna... (7) 


"O contrary woman, you have wounded me for no reason with your pointless 
anger. Your eyes are half-closed, as if ashamed, when you glance in my 
direction. Now abandon your reluctance to unite with me." 


"O Radha, you continually stared at me with wrathful eyes to give me distress 
for no reason. Without provocation, you made a show of anger to make me 
depressed. In this way, you broke me into pieces. But look, now your glance is 
raining prema. The furious glance is ashamed, so your eyes have become half- 
closed. Now your eyes should also give up this useless half-closed expression. 
Be pleased with me and enthusiastically cast aside your languor for union." 


Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavinda 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam anupada-nigadita-madhuripu-modam 
janayatu rasika-janesu manorama-rati-rasa-bhdva-vinodam 

ksanam adhuna... (8) 


Sri Jayadeva describes the rapturous amusements of Madhuripu Sri Krsna 
in every word. May his song awaken the playful pastimes of the delightful 
amorous rasa in the hearts of the devotees who are expert in tasting pure 
transcendental mellows. 

Herein Sri Jayadeva has investigated the ever-increasing ecstasy of Sri Krsna. 
This song, entitled Madhuripu-moda-vidyddhara-lild, delights Sri Krsna 
because it expands the mood of rati-rasa and exposes the eroticism of union. 
The incomparable nature and pre-eminence of srngdra-rasa is accepted 
unanimously amongst the expert devotees. 

"May this song awaken the fascinating joy of the erotic mellow in the hearts 
of connoisseurs of spiritual love." 

Q^erse JO 

^?T: IT rT^NhjcT *JWK«T: ftrawjT^F: II Ro || 

pratyuhah pulakdnkurena nividdslese nimesena ca 
krtddkuta-vilokite 'dhara-sudhd-pdne kathd-kelibhih 

dnandddhigamena manmatha-kald-yuddhe piyasminn abhud 
udbhutah sa tayor babhuva suratdrambhah priyam bhdvukah 


A>ct twelve 

Then they began the astonishing and supremely pleasurable love-battle for 
which they had both been hankering for a long time. In the heat of that sensual 
competition, horripilation from the thrill of a deep embrace seemed to be 
an impediment. The blinking of their eyes seemed to obstruct their diligent 
observation of each other's intentions in the game. While drinking the nectar 
of each other's lips, their erotic sweet-talk became troublesome. And even the 
attainment of rapture seemed like an obstacle in the contest of amorous arts. 


In this verse Sri Jayadeva explains that Radha and Madhava have now begun 
their long awaited and intensely pleasurable sexual union. 

In the beginning of their love-games, the erection of their skin pores creates 
an obstacle. Naturally the thrill of severe horripilation momentarily impedes 
their entering the posture of union. 

Furthermore, the blinking of their eyes obstructed their careful observation 
of each other. Their eagerness to see each other's special intentions made 
blinking intolerable. When drinking the nectar of each other's lips, their 
erotic repartee just seemed to get in the way. When kissing, even sweet-talk 
is intolerable. Tasting each other's lips becomes much more pleasurable than 
inciting each other with provocative words. Even the attainment of rapture 
seems to be an impediment in the contest of sensual arts. 

This verse features sardula-vikridita chanda, yathasankhya alankara and 
the srngara-rasa called sambhoga. The present verse is an introduction to the 
twenty-fourth song entitled Candrahasa. 



O^erse 11 

cFRT: ^mfq ^PHHIM H^ cMHW ^FTT *TfcT: II W II 

dorbhydm samyamitah payodhara-bharendptditah pdnijair 
dviddho dasanaih ksatddhara-putah sroni-tatendhatah 

hastendnamitah kace 'dhara-madhu-syandena sammohitah 
kdntah kdm apt trptim dpa tad aho kdmasya vdmd gatih 


Radhika's dear lover was bound by her arms, repeatedly crushed by the weight 
of her breasts and pierced by her fingernails. His lips were wounded by her 
teeth and he was severely pounded by her hips. Catching his hair with her 
hands, she held him down and bewildered him with the stream of sweet honey 
from her lips. In this way Krsna attained an exhilaration that was out of this 
world. Therefore it is said that the ways of Kamadeva are counterintuitive. 


The poet Sri Jayadeva is describing viparita-rati in this verse. He states that 
Krsna has attained an indescribable state of satisfaction. Therefore it is said that 
the ways of kdrna are contradictory and beyond ordinary experience. 

This paradox arises from the appearance of another rasa. As an offender 
takes shelter of chivalry (vira-rasd) to accept his punishment, Krsna took shelter 
of vira-rasa and progressed through the stages of being arrested, beaten, 
pierced, bound, wounded and made to submit. Finally he arrived at the state of 
complete bewilderment. 

Although Radha and Krsna's enthusiasm is relentless, neither side is prepared 
to withdraw from this love-battle. Radha punished Krsna in various ways 
through the medium of viparita-rati. She bound him in the prison of her arms. 


A>ct twelve 

She oppressed and pummelled him with the combined weight of her breasts. 
She wounded him with her nails and bit his lips with her teeth. She bashed 
him with her broad hips. She grabbed his hair with her hands as she drank the 
current of honey from his lips. Radha brought her lover to the point of complete 
bewilderment. Such love is a matter of great wonderment! 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda and rasavad alankdra. Some 
scholars also refer to this verse as a specific sub-section entitled Kdminthdsa. 

WT cbMMWI4 Pbis^MR TTRfw? ^FSRTrT I 

Wfft HlfrtdH^T m1*N<«: ^frni ^kT: terfrT II V< II 

mdrdnke rati-keli-sankula-randrambhe tayd sdhasa- 
prayam kdnta-jaydya kincid upari prdrambhi yat-sambhramdt 

nispandd jaghana-sthalt sithilatd dor-vallir utkampitam 
vakso militant aksi paurusa-rasah strindrii kutah sidhyati 


At the outset of the erotic war-game, absorption in kdma made Sri Radha 
intensely aggressive. She mounted her lover's chest and vigorously began to 
make love to him with great zeal in a determined attempt to achieve victory. By 
doing this, her loins eventually became motionless, her arms became slack, her 
breasts began to heave and her eyes closed. Indeed, how can a woman's desire 
to taste the aggressive male rasa ever be successful? 


In continuation of the previous description, the author presents a further 
development of srngdra-rasa amalgamated with vira-rasa. Therefore this verse 
should be accepted in the context of the previous one. 


From the perspective of philosophical principles, Radha is present in the left 
side of Krsna's body. At the beginning of their intense battle of lovemaking - 
when Radha was absorbed in the fighting spirit - she performed impetuous acts 
of aggression, such as binding, beating and so on, in order to achieve victory 
over her lover. However, she eventually became completely exhausted. When 
her hips became motionless, she was unable to move. She could not bind him 
because her arms fell limp. Her breasts began to tremble violently and her eyes 
closed. She could not even see anything. 

Some sexologists are of the opinion that women are weaker because they 
cannot maintain the dominant male position (paurusatva). How can vira-rasa 
possibly arise in them? 

Some scholars call this verse Paurusa-prema-vildsa. It features sdrdula- 
vikridita chanda, visesokti alankdra and sambhoga-srngdra-rasa. 

O^erse 13 

f^MvS^^liruiHI Gk§fcWI: «W<*m1 JJsNtT: I 

^T: *IH$rtw^dH^WJ*iH: *llc*dH II ^ II 

tasydh pdtala-pdnijdnkitam uro nidrd-kasdye drsau 

nirdhauto 'dhara-sonimd vilulitdh srasta-srajo murdhajdh 

kdnct-ddma dara-slathdncalam iti prdtar nikhdtair drsor 

ebhih kdma-sarais tad-adbhutam abhut patyur manah kilitam 


Sri Radha's breasts had become pink with fingernail-marks. Her eyes were 
red due to sleep deprivation. The red cosmetic on her lips had been wiped 
away by prolonged kissing. The garland of flowers that had been woven into 
her hair had withered. The sash around her waist had become loose and her 
underwear was open. When these five arrows confronted Krsna's eyes in the 


A>ct twelve 

early morning, his mind was impaled by the five arrows of Kamadeva yet again. 
How astonishing it is! 


Here Sri Jayadeva adds that Krsna becomes pierced again by Radha's five 
lust-provoking arrows, even when their lovemaking is over. How strikingly 
wonderful! In the early morning, Krsna's sensual desires reawaken. In which 
of Radha's limbs did Krsna see the arrows that excited his kama? In answer 
Sri Jayadeva says: 

(1) Paldsa puspa-bana - Krsna had marked Radha's breasts with his fingernails 
while they were making love. Therefore her breasts are the pink pulas 
flower arrow. 

(2) Kamala puspa-bana - Her eyes had become red from her being awake 
throughout the night. Therefore her eyes are the lotus flower arrow. 

(3) Bandhujiva puspa-bana - When the red cosmetic on Radha's lips was 
washed away, their natural lustre was revealed. Therefore her lips are the 
scarlet mallow flower arrow. 

(4) Malati puspa-bana - The flower garland adorning Radha's hair had withered 
and fallen because the arrangement of her hair was repeatedly crushed 
during their love-games. Therefore this wilted garland is the jasmine flower 

(5) Kusumastra-bdna - Radha's sash and upper cloth had become slack. They 
are Kamadeva's golden arrows such as the bauhinia flower. 

Krsna's mind was naturally pierced on beholding Radha. Her limbs are the 
embodiment of the powerful arrows of Cupid, which entered Krsna's heart 
through the pathway of his eyes. 

This verse is a specific sub-section entitled Kdmddbhutdbhinava-mrgdnka- 
lekha. The chanda is sdrdula-vikridita and the rasa is adbhuta-rasopabrmhita 



oillrtlrt: <^IMI$IW<ftfdHtf^>: ^tfVl <*>mW1 

M^-rll ^?PT W c^fa ftc§fc4d«^)4 fsRtfrT II *X II 

vydlolah kesa-pdsas taralitam alakaih sveda-lolau kapolau 
klistd drstddhara-srih kuca-kalasa-rucd hdritd hdra-yastih 

kdnct-kdncid gatdsdm stana-jaghana-padam pdnindcchddya sadyah 
pasyanti satrapam mam tad api vilulita-srag-dhareyam dhinoti 


In the early morning, Radha's hair was dishevelled and her curling locks had 
fallen loose. Her cheeks had become wet with perspiration and the brightness 
of her bitten lips had faded. Her pearl necklaces were defeated by the beauty 
of her pitcher-like breasts, and the lustre of the sash on her hips had become 
hopeless. Radha was thoroughly exhausted. She immediately began to cover 
her breasts and thighs with her hands. As she looked shyly towards Krsna, she 
acquainted him with the cause of bliss by her captivating loveliness. 


Radha was overwhelmed with fatigue from the incessant thrusts of lovemaking. 
As soon as morning came, she quickly began to cover her limbs out of 
embarrassment. As she was covering herself, she looked at Krsna and captivated 
his heart with her tender feminine beauty. The braid of her hair was open and 
her curling locks hung down on both sides. When the perspiration dried on her 
cheeks, it left behind many stains. The lustre of her bimba-fruit lips had become 
dim. The splendour of her necklace had become hopeless before the radiance 
of her round waterpot-breasts. In the absence of her bodice, her necklace 
seemed pale and the lustre of the sash about her hips also faded against the 
background of her naked beauty. 

Appropriately, the chanda of this verse is sragdhard. 


A>ct twelve 

O^erse IS 

^b|l^^HRt>[H:^^dHl^l SRr*TFR*T II ^ II 

isan-milita-drsti mugdha-vilasat-sttkdra-dhdrd-vasdd 


svdsonnaddha-payodharopari-parisvangdt kurangt-drso 

harsotkarsa-vimukti-nihsaha-tanor dhanyo dhayaty dnanam 


Radha's large doe-like eyes were almost closed from the abundant rapture 
of lovemaking. Her body was incapable of tolerating any sort of activity. Her 
lips were bathed by the rays of her teeth, which were exposed each time she 
expressed a sudden surge of sensual pleasure or when she lovingly groaned 
in indistinct, pitiful murmuring sounds. Her breasts trembled slightly from 
her tremulous breathing as she felt Krsna's deep embrace. Only a person with 
immense piety can see her face in this condition. 


The poet says that Radha attained an extreme state of euphoria during her 
amorous love-games. Therefore, on being released from Krsna's embracing and 
kissing, she drowned in a unique type of fathomless joy. Under the influence of 
kdfna, her body was unable to endure even the slightest exertion. In the end, 
when her lover Sri Krsna saw her face with half closed eyes, he wanted to kiss 
her again and engage in further congress. 

During lovemaking, Radha's breasts, though not horripilating, became hard 
and somewhat compressed in Krsna's tight embrace. Radha was gasping over 
and over again in spasms of intense ecstasy. As such charming, indistinct and 
incoherent sounds came out from her mouth, the space between her lips was 
washed in the rays emanating from her sparkling teeth. 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


Only a person with a vast accumulation of pious activities (sukrti) can see 
Radha's face at that time. Such good fortune can be attained only by Sri Krsna or 
the maidservants (manjarts) of Sri Radha. 

This verse features sdrdula-vikridita chanda, jati alankdra, pdhcdli riti, 
mdgadhi gtti, bhdrati vrtti. The gdna features sthita laya. Sri Radha and Krsna's 
coital position is called vrksddhirudhakam dlingana, the tree-mounting 

Q^erse 16 

Variation 1 

PImHIW <fd$M ^Prt HU^Hdlo^l || ^ || 

<^/z<2 &2 nirgata-bddhd radha svddhina-bhartrkd 
nijagdda rati-kldntam kdntarh mandana-vdnchayd 

Variation 2 

3T*T ^TT ^T<ftcT <4<dl^ ITT PwmRsWI^ I 
7TSTT WTFS «W<ft«HH^H 'll^KH II ^ II 

tftf/z<3 sahasd supritarh suratdnte sd nitdnta-khinndngi 
radha jagdda sddaram idam dnandena govindam 

Variation 1 - Radha's affliction was pacified, and Krsna was exhausted from 
the vigorous exertion of loving pastimes. Then, in the mood of a heroine who 
controls her lover (svddhina-bhartrkd), Radha spoke to Krsna, expressing her 
desire to be decorated by him. 

Variation 2 - When their lovemaking came to an end, the blissfully exhausted 
Radha began to speak courteously to Govinda. 


A>ct twelve 


When one's lover is completely absorbed in affection, one's request is sure to 
be fruitful - this is an axiomatic truth. Therefore, Radha smiled. The words she 
spoke to Krsna will be described in the next song. 



:" .- .-■-- 






The musical mode is ramakari raga. The rhythm is >wft' tola. 

«j4tH^i«Hc*fridci>3ic4$Fic*4 ftnr ^Nl^ ll%JTo || \C II 

«Hft«IMI$lfek4l'HErc > ?pi^T f^HT *U^ llf^TTTo ||^ II 

f^d+H^ f^R^ MN*iUl d4*H+Htf* ft llf^JTo II ^o II 

fTO^^rafc^ tffad ^R> fd<*cM{fecH*IHlct>) I 
fdfedcbc^cbtf *Hc4HH 1cr$jfarT$IH$n*} llteo II ^ II 

^Id'lftfd rtfod $<JHlfd ftl<slfd4fel<s|U4ct)4|ii) llf^To ||^|| 

mwti ^R*PT *IM^U"lclKU|cb^^ | 
HftK4MleNHm<U||{H ■^pn^R eTHTO Tf^" IIFfJTo II ^ 

^flvl^clcKlft twk W& W& ^R> *T^ | 
gK-eKU|WU||i^$dcbfrt*c§N , Me|^«<s|U^d UH*To H^tf 

?:'>-:'/ . 






-•^sr^' ■■~^' > --- r< ; J: *f-$j^ 

A>ct twelve 

O^erse 17 

kuru yadunandana candana-sisiratarena karena payodhare 
mrgamada-patrakam atra manobhava-mangala-kalasa-sahodare 

nijagdda sa yadunandane 
krtdati hrdaydnandane (refrain) (1) 


As Sri Radha was playing with Krsna, the delight of her heart, she said, "O Yadu- 
nandana, with your own hands more cooling than sandalwood paste, please 
paint leaf patterns in musk upon my breasts - the auspicious pitchers of 


The refrain of this song includes kridati hrdaydnandane because Krsna had 
awakened bliss {anandd) in the heart (hrdayd) of Radha. 

Yadu-nandana refers to the son of Nanda Maharaja, Sri Krsna, who appeared 
in the Yadu dynasty Seeing Krsna intent on playing, Radha said, "Decorate me 
with your own hands in such a way that I become completely infused with you. 
I am krsnamayl First of all, paint a row of leaves in musk upon my waterpot- 
breasts with your cool hand. Your touch is more refreshing than sandalwood 
paste. The auspicious pitchers established during Kamadeva's procession around 
the universe are full, heavy, and decorated with dark mango leaves." 

This verse also alludes to a specific type of nail-mark called mayura-padaka, 
which resembles the impression left by a peacock's foot. The artist who will 
paint the leaves in musk is being supplicated with courtesy. 


Ctferse J 8 

ali-kula-ganjana-sanjanakarh rati-ndyaka-sdyaka-mocane 
tvad-adhara-cumbana-lambita-kajjalam ujjvalaya priya locane 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (2) 


"My darling one, my eyes release the arrows of Rati's hero. Their cosmetic has 
been smudged off by the kissing of your lips. Please make my eyes shine with 
this collyrium that eclipses the beauty of a swarm of bumblebees." 


Radha continued, "O my beloved, anoint my eyes with this fresh eye-liner, 
which excels the splendour of a swarm of bumblebees. Kamadeva's arrows fly 
from my sidelong glance. The previous application of collyrium on my eyes has 
been smudged off by the kissing of your lips." 

This verse reveals Krsna's pastime of kissing Radha's eyes. She implies, 
"O my sweetheart, you are the black ointment upon my eyes!" 

QPerse J 9 

nayana-kuranga-taranga-vikdsa-nirdsa-kare sruti-mandale 
manasija-pdsa-vildsa-dhare subha-vesa nivesaya kundale 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (3) 


"O you who dress most handsomely, my earrings repel the leaping deer of my 
eyes. They are like the snares of Kamadeva that bind the hearts of young men. 
Please decorate my ears with those earrings." 


A>ct twelve 


Radha tells Krsna, "My darling who wears a yellow shawl, decorate my ears with 
these ornaments, elegant as the trap of Kamadeva. My ears prevent the deer of 
my eyes from bounding away. O delight of my heart, adorn my ears with these 
ornaments that bewilder the hearts of young men." 

This verse describes how Radha's eyes are so wide that they reach around 
to her ears. The comparison with a deer has been made to shed light on their 
restlessness and their rapid angular movements. 

Q^erse 20 

bhramara-cayam racayantam upari ruciram suciram mama sammukhe 
jita-kamale vimale parikarmaya narma-janakam alakam mukhe 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (4) 


"My unblemished and pleasing face defeats the beauty of an immaculate lotus 
flower. Braid my elegant tresses, which manifest the splendour of bumblebees 
upon the lotus of my face and give rise to laughter and joking." 


Sri Radha said, "O Yadu-nandana, my face has defeated the lustre of a lotus 
flower. Please arrange the locks of hair falling over my charming, unblemished 
and perfect face. My disarrayed tresses may prompt others to pass joking 
comments. Or one might mistake my curls for a crowd of bumblebees who 
always land and rise upon a lotus flower. O Krsna, you are the curling black 
lock upon the lotus of my face!" 

The similarity of Radha's tresses to a formation of bumblebees supports 
the comparison of her face with a lotus flower. This is an example of utpreksd 


O^erse 21 

mrgamada-rasa-valitam lalitam kuru tilakam alika-rajanl-kare 
vihita-kalanka-kalam kamaldnana visramita-srama-stkare 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (5) 


"O lotus-faced one, the perspiration from our vigorous lovemaking has now 
dried, staining my forehead like the deer-shaped mark upon the moon. Please 
draw a beautiful tilaka with this captivating musk upon the half-moon of my 


As with the previous verses, this verse also reveals a specific excitant (uddipana- 
vibhdvd) of the permanent ecstatic emotion. Radha's inner feeling is, "O Krsna, 
you are the central point of my good fortune - you are the tilaka on my 

Q^erse 22 

mama rucire cikure kuru mdnada mdnasaja-dhvaja-cdmare 
rati-galite lalite kusumdni sikhandi-sikhandaka-ddmare 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (6) 


"O you who give respect to others, my hair, which fell loose as we made love, is 
like the whisk of Kamadeva's flag. It is more captivating than the tail-feathers of 
a peacock. Please decorate my charming hair with flower blossoms." 


Sri Radha addresses Krsna as Manada, one who gives honour (mand) to his 
beloveds, or who breaks the contrary mood of indignant lovers. "O Krsna, you 


A>ct twelve 

eclipse the tail-feathers of a peacock with your own lustre. My black locks of 
hair are as charming and attractive as the whisk of Kamadeva's flag. They came 
undone as we were making love. Please decorate them with flowers. May you 
become my braid, woven with flowers, and diffuse your fragrance." 

Q^erse 23 

sarasa-ghane jaghane mama sambara-ddrana-vdrana-kandare 
mani-rasana-vasanabharanani subhdsaya vdsaya sundare 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (7) 


"O pure-hearted one, my loins are the cave of the madly passionate elephant, 
Kamadeva. They are full of rasa, beautiful, pleasing, tender and broad. Please 
decorate them with a jewelled sash, cloth and ornaments." 


Sri Radha says, "O virtuous one, my heart's delight! Your lotus hands are the 
abode of all good fortune. Your heart, being full of rasa, is the root of all 
auspiciousness. Please decorate the slope of my hips with a jewelled girdle, 
garment and ornaments. My loins are full of rasa, soft and voluptuous. They 
are exquisite and alluring like a cave because they are the abode of the madly 
impassioned elephant, Kamadeva. Please dress them with garments and 
ornaments. Actually, you are the ornament of my loins." 

In this song the hero is anukula ndyaka, the heroine is pragalbhd ndyikd and 
the rasa is sambhoga-srngdra. 


sri-jayadeva-vacasi jayade hrdayam sadayam kuru mandane 

nijagdda sd yadunandane... (8) 


Sri Jayadeva's words bestow auspiciousness and steal away the heart. They 
are the ambrosial memories of Sri Hari's lotus feet that vanquish the fever of 
impurities prominent in the age of Kali. May you express the sympathy in your 
heart by decorating the message of Sri Jayadeva. 


This song reveals the definite plan of Radha's ecstatic love. In the ultimate 
transformation of Radha's prema, she wants to immerse herself entirely in Krsna. 
She desires to become krsnamaya - made of Krsna - by the touch of his hands. 
Her heart is Krsna's and her clothes and ornaments are all Krsna. 

Herein the depth of the realization of Radha's prema turns into rasa and 
pours down like rain. Radha says, "O Yadu-nandana, be compassionate enough 
to decorate me. Be absorbed in empathy and become my ornaments." 

From another perspective, the subject of this song is the eloquent speech of 
Sri Jayadeva. "As you will show compassion by decorating Radha, please show 
compassion by decorating my words." 

Therefore, each verse can be interpreted as a specific reference to either 
Radha's ornaments or Jayadeva's words. 

This composition is the nectar of remembrance of Sri Hari's lotus feet. Such 
nectar pacifies the furious fever of immorality in the age of Kali and destroys all 
sins. Simply remembering the nectar shower of Sri Jayadeva's eloquent poetry 
bestows auspiciousness upon all. 



A.ct twelve 

QPerse 25 

f^fcT f^FTf^rT: TftrT: Htal^Vtafa cRnch*ld^ II ^ II 

racaya kucayoh patram citram kurusva kapolayor 
ghataya jaghane kdncim anca srajd kabarl-bharam 

kalaya valaya-srenlm pdnau pade kuru nupurdv 
iti nigaditah pritah pitdmbaro pi tathdkarot 


"O you who are as dear as my very life, paint leaves upon my breast. Draw 
pictures on my cheeks. Decorate my hips with a jewelled sash. Make a charming 
braid in my hair. Put bangles on my wrists and ankle-bells on my feet." Krsna, 
attired in a yellow garment, was pleased to do whatever Radha asked of him. 


Sri Jayadeva again cites the previous song in a condensed form and adds that 
Krsna gladly accomplished whatever Radha told him to do. The word api 
indicates that Krsna attended to her decorations with immense affection exactly 
as she desired. 

Radha politely insisted, "O Yadu-nandana, please paint a row of leaves upon 
my breasts. Draw makara and other pictures on my cheeks. Put a sash around 
my hips. The previous garland has fallen from my hair. Weave my braid with 
another charming garland. Put bangles on my wrists and jewelled ankle-bells on 
my feet." In great delight, Krsna lovingly arranged all these decorations. How? 
Krsna personally became all of Radha's ornaments. 

This verse features harini chanda and sankhya alankdra. The heroine is 
pragalbhd ndyikd and the hero is daksina ndyaka. The rasa is the samyoga 
aspect of srngdra-rasa. 


flH^I: -qf^f^Ff ^TfsPT: *R'fld'llGHW: II ^ II 

yad-gdndharva-kaldsu kausalam anudhydnam ca yad-vaisnavam 
yac chrngdra-viveka-tattvam apiyat kdvyesu lildyitam 

tat sarvarh jayadeva-pandita-kaveh krsnaika-tdndtmanah 
sdnanddh parisodhayantu sudhiyah sri-gita-govindatah 


May the learned scholars, whose hearts are focused exclusively on Bhagavan 
Sri Krsna, joyfully test whatever arts of the gandharvas, meditations on 
Sri Krsna, deliberations on the true nature of srngdra-rasa, and pastimes 
described in other poems, against the poem entitled Gita-govinda. That is, may 
they understand Gita-govinda and also teach it to others. 


On the pretext of praying to the learned scholars, Sri Jayadeva praises himself. 
"O men of wisdom! Gita-govinda is the all in all of the poet Jayadeva. May you 
understand it and also teach it to others. May you also test how Gita-govinda is 
full of rasa!' 

It is necessary to examine the authenticity of a substance. Gdndharva-vidyd 
is a synonym for literature on the musical arts (sangita-sdstrd). Thus the poet 
implies that whatever genius and expertise is present in gdndharva-vidyd is 
also written in this poem. Evidence has been presented to show that rasa is 
the purest transformation of the Vaisnava devotional practices of meditation 
and contemplation on Bhagavan. Whatever deliberations have been made 
previously about srngdra-rasa, in its forms of meeting and separation, have 
also been described here in a superior way. Whatever pastimes have been 


A>ct twelve 

presented in the prominent poems about srngara-rasa are more brilliantly 
manifested here. 

The heart and intelligence of Sri Jayadeva are exclusively absorbed in 
Krsna. The purpose of his composition is to induce one-pointed meditation on 
Krsna. If devotees of Krsna want to see or examine the pure embodiment of 
artistry finely discerning authorship, meditation, contemplation, pastimes, pre- 
eminence and sheer astonishment, then they may do so through the medium of 
this epic poem, Sri Gita-govinda. 

O^erse 27 

fTTSsft TTTSsfcF f5RTT H *RrfrT *RRT: ^k cb^lfa 

^T ^H«NWd^ *^c|W fg^rgxlffH II W II 

sddhvi mddhvlka cintd na bhavati bhavatah sarkare karkardsi 
drdkse draksyanti ke Warn amrta mrtam asi ksira nlram rasas te 

mdkanda kranda kdntddhara dharani-talarh gaccha yacchanti ydvad 
bhdvarh srngdra-sdrasvatam iha jayadevasya visvag-vacdriisi 


Hey powerful wine! Do not think you are so intoxicating. Hey sugar! You are 
too harsh. Hey grapes! Who will look at you? Hey nectar (amrtd)\ You are 
like death (rnrtd). Hey milk! You taste like water. Hey ripe mango! Now go 
and weep. Hey lips of a beautiful woman! Now you can go to hell. As long as 
the complete essence of erotic love exists in the form of the auspicious, artful 
composition of Sri Jayadeva, you have nothing to do. 


Sri Jayadeva is describing the sweet artistry of Gita-govinda. This poem is an 
auspicious eulogy of the essence of the most brilliant srngara-rasa. Its sweet- 


ness is so unparalleled that all other substances in the world have become 
insipid in its presence. No other sweet substance can administer sweetness to 
the learned devotees. 

Sri Jayadeva's clever words are auspiciousness personified. The concentrated 
essence of everything is the romantic sentiment (srngdra-rasd) , and Gtta- 
govinda is the essence of that. Radha and Krsna's auspicious adventures are the 
exclusive embodiment of good fortune and welfare. For the expert devotees 
of the Supreme Lord, there is no astonishingly sweet taste available anywhere 
like the rasa of Gita-govinda. All the sweetness in the entire world combined 
together in one place has become tasteless in the presence of this poetry. 

The author says, "Hey wine! What will you think about now? Your sweetness 
is in vain. What can your intoxicating effect do for the righteous devotees? Hey 
sugar! What happened to your sweetness? How harsh you are. Are you worthy 
of investigation? You have no substance. Hey grapes! Do not fear. Can any 
connoisseur of rasa ever even look in your direction? Hey nectar! You should 
not be proud. You have died. Hey milk! Do not proudly think T am rasa\ 
because your rasa is just water. Hey ripe mango! You have to cry. The devotees 
who are expert at tasting juice (rasa) will not be concerned about your growing 
old. Hey lips of passionate young women! You also have no place. Go to Patala, 
the residence of the infernals. Those who are expert in relishing the rasa of this 
poetry do not experience any sweetness in you." 

This literature is nothing but auspiciousness in the beginning, the middle and 
the end. Therefore it is the ingredient cause of the word subha (auspiciousness). 

The present verse features sragdhard chanda, aramayi vrtti, vaidarbhi riti, 
tiraskrtopada alankara and the natya alankara called guna-kirtana. 



A>ct twelve 

Q^erse 28 

dSlHlc|[rtHlRt>cb|c|[rt^l ^nftWT fsnrfcT I 

omImkI: M*NldHW ^<T fHhldi ^T «U|«H » ^^ » 

ittharh keli-tattr vihrtya yamund-kule samam rddhayd 
tad-romdvali-mauktikdvali-yuge venl-bhramam bibhrati 

tatrdhlddi-kuca-praydga-phalayor lipsdvator hastaydr 

vydpdrdh purusottamasya dadatu sphitdrh mudd sampadam 


In this way, Krsna enjoyed many love-games with Radha on the Yamuna 
riverside. He mistook the row of hairs above her navel and her pearl necklace to 
be the Prayaga confluence. The fruits of that Prayaga are her delightful breasts. 
Sri Krsna, the best of males, desires to attain those breasts. May the affairs of 
his two lotus hands bestow the wealth of happiness upon the reciters and the 
audience of this poem. 


Sri Jayadeva says, "May the activities of Krsna's hands bestow immense hap- 
piness upon my reciters and my audience." 

The speciality of his hands is that they perpetually find joy in the Venl- 
sahgama or Prayaga confluence. Breasts are the fruit of this Prayaga. According 
to his own desires, Krsna plays many games with the dominant heroine, Radha, 
on the banks of the Yamuna. 

The meeting of Radha's row of hairs (romavali) above her navel with her 
necklace of pearls inspires remembrance of the playful confluence of the 
rivers Ganges and Yamuna. Her romavali has been compared with the Yamuna 
because it is dark like Krsna, and her pearls are bright so they have been 
compared to the Ganges. Their meeting place must surely be Prayaga. Sri Radha 


is herself Prayaga and the fruits of bathing in this Prayaga are her breasts. 

"May whatever activities Sri Krsna's hands perform, impelled by the desire 
to attain the delightful fruit of this Prayaga, confer ever-increasing bliss upon all 
those who recite and hear this poem." 

This sub-section is entitled Suprita-pitdmbara-tdlasreni. It features sdnga- 
rupaka alankdra, sdrdula-vikridita chanda, pdncdli riti and giti and bhdrati 
vrtti. The heroine is svddhina-bhartrkd ndyikd and the hero is uttama ndyaka 
with the attributes of dhlroddtta. 

Q^erse 29 

M4^^dHHHNcbibU||^unHU|lHi t^ 

cbNo^jHclN^M^dl^ ^f?: W ^: II W II 

paryankt-krta-ndga-ndyaka-phand-srent-mantndm gane 

sankrdnta-pratibimba-sankalanayd bibhrad vibhu-prakriydm 

pdddmbhoruha-dhdri-vdridhi-sutdm aksndrh didrksuh sataih 
kdya-vyuham ivdcarann upacittbhuto harihpdtu vah 

He who has kept Sesa-raja, the chief of all serpents as his bed; whose splendour 
is expanded as reflections in the jewels upon Sesa-raja's innumerable hoods; 
whose lotus feet are eternally massaged by the goddess of fortune who desires 
to see him with thousands of eyes; who is abounding simultaneously in many 
forms; may that Sri Hari protect you all. 


A>ct twelve 

O^erse 30 

Warn aprdpya mayi svayamvara-pardm kstroda-tlrodare 
sanke sundari kdlakutam apivat mudho mrddni-patih 

ittharh purva-kathdbhir anya-manaso viksipya vakso 'ncalam 
padmdydh stana-korakopari-milan-netro harihpdtu vah 


"O beautiful one! When the Lord of Parvatl (Siva) could not attain you on the 
shore of the ocean of milk, bewildered by your beauty, he swallowed the deadly 
kdlakuta poison. Then you selected me to be your consort." 8 

Remembering this previous conversation, Krsna repeatedly filled his eyes 
with the sight of the treasured mahdpadma jewels of Sri Radha's breasts. May 
that Sri Hari protect you all. 

' This is a reference to Srimad-Bhagavatam 8.8.8-24. 


O^erse 31 

^n^dMl^l^cb^l^lHW II ^ II 

srl-bhojadeva-prabhavasya vdmd- 

devi-suta sri-jayadevakasya 

sri-gita-govinda-kavitvam astu 

May the poetry of Sri Gita-govinda by Sri Jayadeva, the son of Sri Bhojadeva and 
Vama-devi, beautify the voices of dear friends such as Parasara. 


The sound of this poem should vastly expand and continuously vibrate through- 
out the sky. 

"May this unprecedented picture of pastimes continue to be beautified 
eternally in the hearts of the devotees. May Sri Gita-govinda become their 
beloved, more beloved and most beloved all-inclusive life's breath for awakening 
their remembrance of Sri Krsna, the embodiment of rasa." 

Thus ends the Balabodhini-prakasa commentary on 
Act Twelve of Sri Gita-govinda, entitled Suprita-pltambara. 

Tjhe GLnd 









QPbrse Q^ndex 

abhinava-jaladhara-sundara 38 

adhara-sudhd-rasam upanaya bhdmini 332 

adhigatam akhila-sakhibhir idam 295 

adyotsanga-vasad-bhujanga-kavala 56 

ahaha kalaydmi valayddi 198 

aham iha nivasami na 200 

aham iha nivasami ydhi radham 153 

akhi he kesi-mathanam udararh 87 

aksnor niksipad anjanam sravanayos 300 

alasa-nimilita-locanaya 91 

ali-kula-ganjana-sanjanakam 346 

amala-kamala-dala-locana 36 

amrta-madhura-mrdutara-vacanena 226 

aneka-ndri-parirambha-sambhrama 58 

angesv dbharanam karoti bahusah 187 

anila-tarala-kisalaya-nikarena 293 

anila-tarala-kuvalaya-nayanena 224 

antar-mohana-mauli-ghurnana-calan 250 

dslesdd anu cumbanad anu nakho 170 

athdgatdm mddhavam antarena 202 

atha katham api ydminim viniya 237 

atha sahasd supritam suratdnte 342 

atha sd nirgata-bddhd rddhd 342 

atha tarn gantum asaktdm 179 

atikramydpdngam sravana-patha 319 

atrdntare ca kulatd-kula-vartma-pdta 193 

atrdntare masrna-rosa-vasdm asima 269 

dvdso vipindyate 134 

avirala-nipatita-madana-sardd iva 128 


bddhdm vidhehi malaydnila 232 

bahir iva malinataram tava krsna 246 

bandhuka-dyuti-bdndhavo 282 

bhajantyds talpdntam 320 

bhanati kavi-jayadeve 158 

bhavati vilambini vigalita-lajjd 184 

bhramara-cayam racayantam upari 347 

bhramati bhavdn abald-kavaldya 246 

bhru-cdpe nihitah katdksa-visikho 117 

bhru-pallavo dhanur apdnga 116 

cala-malaya-vana-pavana-surabhi-slte 306 

cancala-kundala-lalita-kapold 207 

candana-carcita-nila-kalevara 61 

candraka-cdru-mayura-sikhandaka 79 

carana-kamala-galad-alaktaka-siktam 244 

carana-kisalaye kamald-nilaye 218 

carana-ranita-mani-nupurayd 93 

chalayasi vikramane 20 

cintaydmi tad-dnanam 108 


Q&ri t^Qjita-tjavindc 



dahati sisira-mayukhe 156 

dara-vidalita-malll-valli 55 
dasana-padam bhavad-adhara-gatam 245 

dayita-vilokita-lajjita-hasita 20 7 

dhira-samire yamuna-tire 162 

dhvanati madhupa-samuhe 157 

dhyana-layena purah parikalpya 132 

dina-mani-mandala-mandana 33 

disi disi kirati sajala-kana-jalam 139 

dorbhyam samyamitah payodhara 336 

drsau tava madalase 283 

drsyase purato gatagatam 110 

duraloka-stoka-stabaka 98 

ganayati guna-gramam bhramam 84 

gatavati sakhi-vrnde 'manda 327 

ghana-caya-rucire racayati cikure 214 

ghana-jaghana-stana-bhara-bhare 292 

ghatayati sughane kuca-yuga-gagane 214 

gopa-kadamba-nitambavati 80 


haram amalatara-taram urasi 314 

haravali-tarala-kancana-kanci-dama 303 

hari-carana-sarana-jaya 200 

hari! hari! hatadarataya 107 

hari! hari! yahi madhava yahi kesava 240 

hari-parirambhana-valita-vikara 206 

harim eka-rasam ciram 313 

harir abhimani rajanir idanim 166 

harir abhisarati vahati madhu-pavane 258 

harir iha mugdha-vadhu-nikare 61 

harir iti harir itijapati sa-kamam 140 

harir upayatu vadatu bahu-madhuram 261 

hasta-srasta-vilasa-vamsam anrju 96 

hrdi bisa-lata-haro nay am 112 

iha rasa-bhanane krta-hari-gunane 220 

isan-milita-drsti mugdha-vilasat 341 

itas tatas tarn anusrtya radhikam 104 

iti catula-catu-patu 277 

ittharh keli-tatir vihrtya yamuna 355 


jalada-patala-valad-indu-vinindaka 81 

janaka-suta-krta-bhusana 38 

janayasi manasi kim iti guru-khedam 261 

jayasri-vinyastair mahita iva 322 

jita-bisa-sakale mrdu-bhuja-yugale 216 









kamsarir api samsara 
kapi kapola-tale milita 
kapi vilasa-vilola-vilocana 
kara-kamalena karomi caranam aham 330 
kara-tala-tala-tarala-valaya 65 

kasmira-gaura-vapusam 301 

kathita-samaye 'pi harir 196 

kati na kathitam idam 259 

keli-kala-kutukena ca kacid 64 

kesava dhrta 14 


Q^erse ^nde% 

kim iti visidasi rodisi vikald 260 

kim karisyati kim vadisyati 107 

kim visrdmyasi krsna-bhogi-bhavane 188 

kisalaya-sayana-nivesitayd 90 

kisalaya-sayana-tale kuru kdmini 329 

kokila-kalarava-kujitayd 92 

ksanam adhund 329 

ksanam api virahahpura na sehe 147 

ksamyatam aparam kaddpi 111 

ksatriya-rudhira-maye 21 

ksitir ati-vipula-tare 16 

kuru yadunandana candana 345 

kusuma-caya-racita-suci-vdsa-gehe 306 

kusuma-sukumdra-tanum 199 

kusuma-visikha-sara-talpam analpa 129 

lalita-lavanga-lata-parisilana 48 


madana-mahipati-kanaka-danda-ruci 51 

mddhave ma kuru mdnini 258 

mddhavikd-parimala-lalite 53 

madhu-mudita-madhupa 308 

madhu-mura-naraka-vinasana 36 

madhuratara-pika-nikara 308 
manimaya-makara-manohara-kundala 82 

manjutara-kunja-tala-keli-sadane 305 

mam ahaha vidhurayati 198 

mama maranam eva varam 197 

mama rucire cikure kuru manada 348 

mam ati-viphala-rusd vikali-krtam 333 

mam iyam calita vilokya 107 

manobhavanandana candandnila 230 

maranke rati-keli-sankula 
meghair meduram ambaram 




mrdu-cala-malaya-pavana-surabhi-site 306 

mrgamada-rasa-valitam lalitam 348 

mrgamada-saurabha 50 

mugdhe! madhu-mathanam anugatam 291 

mugdhe vidhehi mayi 279 

muhur avalokita-mandana-lild 182 

mukharam adhiram tyaja manjiram 164 






ndma-sametam krta-sanketam 

ndtha hare! sidati radhd vdsa-grhe 



nayana-visayam api kisalaya-talpam 

nay at ah sakhi nirdayo yadi sathas 

nibhrta-nikunja-grham gatayd 

nijagdda sd yadunandane 

nindasi yajna-vidher 

nindati candanam indu-kiranam anu 

nila-nalindbham api 

pdnau ma kuru cuta-sdyakam 
parihara krtdtanke sankdm 
pasyati disi disi rahasi bhavantam 
patati patatre vicalati patre 
pranamata hrdi vinidhdya harim 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


prasarati sasadhara-bimbe 

pratar nila-nicolam acyutam urah 


prati-padam idam apt nigadati 

pratyuhah pulakankurena nivida 

pravisa radhe! madhava-samipam iha 


priye! carusile! 

purvam yatra samam tvayd rati-pater 


racaya kucayoh patram citram 
radhika virahe tava kesava 
ramate yamuna-pulina-vane 
ramayati subhrsam kam apt sudrsam 
rase harim iha vihita-vilasam 
rasollasa-bharena vibhrama-bhrtam 
rati-grha-jaghane vipulapaghane 
rati-sukha-sare gatam abhisare 
ripur iva sakhi-samvaso 'yam 

sa-bhaya-cakitam vinyasyantim 
sadhvi madhvika cinta 
sakhi! sidati tava virahe vanamali 
sakhi/ya ramita vanamalina 
sakuta-smitam akulakula 

194 sa mam draksyati vaksyati 298 

233 samudita-madane ramani-vadane 213 

90 sanandam nanda-sunur 321 

131 sancarad-adhara-sudha 78 

334 sandrananda-purandaradi-divisad 264 

305 sapritim tanutam harih 285 

331 sarasa-ghane jaghane mama sambara 349 

271 sarasa-masrnam api malayaja-pankam 138 

159 sa romancati sit-karoti vilapaty 142 

sa sa-sadhvasa-sanandam 311 

sasi-kirana-cchuritodara-jaladhara 316 

351 sasimukhi mukharaya 332 

174 sasimukhi tava bhati bhangura-bhru 280 

313 satyam evasi yadi 272 

137 saundaryaika-nidher ananga-lalana 323 

240 sa virahe tava dina 127 

213 slisyati cumbati jaladhara-kalpam 184 

218 slisyati kam api cumbati kam api 66 

78 smara-garala-khandanam 276 

70 smara-samarocita-viracita-vesa 205 

216 smara-sara-subhaga-nakhena karena 296 

94 smaraturam daivata-vaidya-hrdya 144 

162 snigdhe yat parusasi yat pranamati 262 

231 sphurad-atimukta-lata-parirambhana 53 

sphuratu kuca-kumbhayor 274 

sphuritam ananga-taranga-vasad iva 294 

172 srama-jala-kana-bhara-subhaga-sarira 209 

353 sri-bhojadeva-prabhavasya vama 358 

227 sri-jayadeva-bhanita-hari-ramitam 209 
260 sri-jayadeva-bhanita-rati-vancita 247 

228 sri-jayadeva-bhanita-vacanena 229 
156 sri-jayadeva-bhanita-vibhava 318 
224 sri-jayadeva-bhanitam adharikrta 297 

99 sri-jayadeva-bhanitam ati-lalitam 262 


Q^erse ^nde% 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam « 
sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam udayati 
sri-jayadeva-bhanitam iti gitam 
sri-jayadeva-kaver idam kurute 
sri-jayadeva-kaver idam uditam 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam ati-sundara 83 

sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam adbhuta 67 
sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam adhikam 133 
sri-jayadeva-bhanitam idam anupada 334 




sri-jayadeva-kaver idam uditam udaram 27 
sri-jayadeva-vacasi jayade 350 

sri-jayadeve krta-hari-seve 167 

srnu ramaniya-taram taruni-jana 292 

srita-kamala-kuca-mandala 32 

stana-vinihitam api haram udaram 137 

sthala-jalaruha-ruci-kara-caranena 226 
sthala-kamala-ganjanam 275 

svasita-pavanam anupama-parinaham 138 
syamala-mrdula-kalevara-mandalam 314 
suciram anunayena prinayitva 289 

tala-phalad api gurum ati-sarasam 258 

tarn aham hrdi sangatam 109 

tarn atha manmatha-khinnam 255 

tani sparsa-sukhani te ca taraldh 118 

tanvi khinnam asuyaya 109 

tarala-drg-ancala-calana-manohara 315 

tasyah patala-panijankitam uro 338 

tat kim kam api kaminim abhisrtah 201 

tava carane pranata vayam 39 

tava kara-kamala-vare 18 

tavedam pasyantyah 248 

tiryak-kantha-vilola-mauli 120 

tvad-abhisarana-rabhasena valanti 181 

tvad-vamyena samam samagram 169 

Warn aprapya mayi svayamvara-param 357 

Warn asi mama bhusanam 272 

Warn cittena dram vahann ayam ati 310 

tvaritam upaiti na katham abhisaram 183 

tyajati na pani-talena kapolam 139 


unmada-madana-manoratha-pathika 50 

unmilan-madhu-gandha-lubdha 57 

urasi murarer upahita-hare 165 


vacah pallavayaty umapatidharah 10 

vadana-kamala-parisilana-milita 316 

vadana-sudha-nidhi-galitam 330 

vadasi yadi kincid api 2 71 

vag-devata-carita-citrita-citta-sadma 6 

vahasi vapusi visade 24 

vahati ca valita-vilocana-jaladharam 129 

vahati malaya-samire 156 

vapur anuharati tava smara-sangara 242 

varnitam jayadeva-kena 111 

vasante vasanti-kusuma 42 

vasati dasana-sikhare 1 7 

vasati vipina-vitane 158 

vedan uddharate jaganti vahate 29 

vicalad-alaka-lalitanana-candra 206 

viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante 48 

viharati vane radha 75 

vihita-padmavati-sukha-samaje 309 

vihita-visada-bisa-kisalaya-valaya 182 

vikasita-sarasija-lalita-mukhena 225 


QS/f £§)ita-$0vindc 


vikirati muhuh svasdn asah 168 

vilikhati rahasi kuranga-madena 130 

vipula-pulaka-bhara-danturitam 31 7 

vipula-pulaka-bhuja-pallava-valayita 80 

vipula-pulaka-palih 186 

vipula-pulaka-prthu-vepathu-bhanga 208 

viracita-catu-vacana-racanam 291 

viraha-pandu-murari-mukhambuja 210 

vitarasi diksu rane 22 

visada-kadamba-tale militant 82 

visvesam anuranjanena janayann 68 

vitata-bahu-valli-nava-pallava-ghane 307 

vrsti-vyakula-gokulavana-rasad 148 

vyalolah kesa-pasas taralitam alakaih 340 

vyathayati vrtha maunam 281 

yad-anugamanaya nisi 196 

yad-gandharva-kalasu kausalam 352 

yadi hari-smarane sarasam mano 8 

yami he! kam iha saranam 196 

yamuna-tira-vanira 125